amazing Small House Design Mount Gambier. Llandovery mansion built in 1878 behind the Methodist church for a lcaol oat and flour miller. Now a bed and breakfast establishment called Colhurst House.

Mount Gambier. Llandovery mansion built in 1878 behind the Methodist church for a lcaol oat and flour miller. Now a bed and breakfast establishment called  Colhurst House.

Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) streets etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

Posted by denisbin on 2015-01-28 23:15:50

Tagged: , Mount Gambier , Mt Gambier , mansion , historic house , Llandovery , agapanthus , tree ferns , garden , Italianate , house , symmetry

amazing Small House Design 28th Police Precinct Station House

28th Police Precinct Station House

East Harlem, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

Summary

The 28th Police Precinct Station House, located on the north side of East 104th Street between Lexington and Third Avenues, was built in 1892-93 to the design of Nathaniel D. Bush. Appointed Architect to the New York City Police Department in 1862, Bush was responsible for the design of station houses in the city until 1895. This station house was based on a design that Bush had produced for the 25th Police Precinct (1886-87), 153-155 East 67th Street, which represented a significant departure from his earlier, simpler buildings. The Police Department employed this design as a general prototype for a number of later station houses.

The midblock 28th Police Precinct Station House, five stories high above a basement, is clad in red brick with gray granite detailing. The design combines elements of the Rundbogenstil and the Renaissance Revival and neo-Grec styles.

The three-bay facade is articulated as a grid formed by continuous piers and intermediate cornices. This building ended its service as a police station in 1974, and has been used and owned since 1981 by Hope Community, Inc. Today, with its original exterior nearly intact, it is one of ten Bush-designed station houses in Manhattan known to survive, and remains one of the few significant municipal or institutional buildings from the era of East Harlem’s rapid development in the late nineteenth century.
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS
The New York City Police Department in the Nineteenth Century

In the first half of the nineteenth century, the number of policemen in New York City remained quite small, despite the growth of the city and the accompanying problems and increase in crime. In 1845, a full-time professional "Day and Night Police" force was established by the state legislature through the Municipal Police Act; in 1853, the force was placed under a Board of Commissioners headed by the mayor.

Policing, subject to the influence of local ward politics, was frequently susceptible to corruption. The police were also required to provide a variety of social services, including sheltering the homeless and attending to "drunkards." In 1857, the Republican-dominated New York State Legislature, intending to wrest control from the city’s Democratic politicians, created the Metropolitan Police District (consisting of New York City and the surrounding counties), headed by a board of gubernatorial appointees.

After Democrats regained the majority in the legislature in 1870, the Metropolitan Police District was abolished and the police in New York City returned to local (Tammany Hall) control. By this time, the size of the force had nearly doubled, but the New York City Police Department struggled to keep abreast of the increasing volume and the changed nature of crime that accompanied the phenomenal growth of the city’s population. Due largely to the close connections between policing and politics, the department continued to be "a symbol of corruption in the late nineteenth century and for much of the twentieth.,

Slow to adopt new methods of communication, the New York police force lagged far behind other cities, and adequate police coverage was thus dependent upon a heavy concentration of police station houses throughout the city.

Nineteenth-Century Police Station Houses in New York City

The Municipal Police Act of 1844 divided New York into police precincts according to ward boundaries, and required that each precinct be furnished with a station house. The Metropolitan Police Act of 1857 also required that a suitable station house be furnished for each precinct. The police station house of the mid- and late-nineteenth century served a variety of functions. The office of the captain and the sergeant’s desk were located on the first floor, with sleeping accommodations provided on the upper floors for the patrolmen who customarily worked long shifts.

Each precinct had a small cell block, as well as (after 1857) lodging rooms for the homeless. (In 1896, Police Commissioner Theodore Roosevelt removed the responsibility of housing the homeless from the police.) As the use of horse-drawn patrol wagons became more common in the latter part of the century, the stable became a standard component of the police station complex.

Most early Manhattan station houses were located in leased buildings, including former residential structures, that were adapted by the city to meet basic departmental needs. Around 1854, Chief of Police George W. Matsell complained to the mayor of

the inadequate accommodations of the station houses, their unsanitary condition and general dilapidation, [so that] an inspection and report of the various station houses were caused to be made, from, which it appears that the necessity for reform and improvement was urgent. Chief Matsell, in view of these facts, suggested that two or three eminent architects should be invited to draw plans for a model station house, and that thereafter all station houses be required to be built according to the plan adopted.

Although no immediate such action was taken toward a model station house design, an Architect to the New York City Police Department, Nathaniel D. Bush, was appointed in 1862. The Annual Report of the Metropolitan Police Board that year further commented on the sorry state of police buildings:

When the station houses of New York and Brooklyn . . . were transferred to the Board of Police, many were so out of repair as to be unfit habitations; others were so limited in size, that policemen after serving their tours of duty on post were compelled to occupy beds that had just been vacated by their companions. Several of the stations were designated pest-houses by the police surgeons, so fruitful were they of disease.

The cellars of the station-houses were divided into cells for prisoners and lodging rooms for the houseless poor. The latter were crowded nightly to their utmost capacity, and so defective was the ventilation, that the stench from these rooms poisoned the atmosphere of the whole building.

The Police Department began a concerted effort in the 1860s to secure or build permanent station houses, to renovate existing facilities, to improve health conditions, and to separate prisons and lodging houses from the main buildings by locating them in the rear.

One historian of the police department noted, however, that "the city could never keep pace with its geographical expansion and the rate of obsolescence of older buildings. . . Even though the need was often expressed, New York was behind such cities as Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Boston in providing accommodations for the police." Overcrowding of patrolmen’s quarters and prisons, unsanitary conditions, and adequate ventilation were continual problems in the station houses to the end of the century.

Nathaniel D. Bush: Architect to the N.Y.C. Police Department

Little is known of the background of Nathaniel D. Bush (c. 1821-1897), though he was born in New York State and moved to Brooklyn around 1867. He was appointed Architect to the New York City Police Department in 1862, and became a detective sergeant in the department’s detective squad in March 1876. Bush retired from the force in June 1887, apparently the result of the Police Board of Commissioners’ enforcement of the policy that all men on the force over the age of sixty must retire.

Bush moved to Nyack, N.Y., but returned to Brooklyn by 1894, and continued to be listed in Brooklyn directories as an architect. He was the architect for New York City’s police station houses until April 1895, when the New York Times ran a notice that Bush had "resigned because age has unfitted him to perform his duties properly." After that, the new police commission under Roosevelt solicited designs from many architects. (That of John DuFais for the new 9th Police Precinct Station House (1896-97), 133-137 Charles Street, was the first to be selected under this system.) Bush was buried in Highland Mills, Orange County, N.Y.

Over the course of three decades, Bush had a significant impact on police station house design in New York City. An observer noted in 1872 that "the new [Bush-designed station house] buildings are models of their kind, and the old ones are being improved as rapidly as possible." From his office in police headquarters at 300 Mulberry Street, Bush had "built, reconstructed or repaired" more than twenty police structures by 1885, when Police

Department historian Augustine E. Costello wrote that Bush had

found the Police station houses in a very crude condition. But little had been done in the line of "modern improvements," and they had been run up, so to speak, to meet pressing emergencies, and without much, if any, regard for the comfort of the men, or the sanitary or architectural advantage of the houses. Mr Bush went to work at once with characteristic energy, and in a few years our station houses began to put on very different appearances. The old ones were repaired and remodeled, and new ones designed; and thus the work went on until to-day these station houses are models for all others over the United States.

Bush’s earlier designs incorporated simplified versions of several contemporary historical styles, mostly the Italianate, Second Empire, and Renaissance Revival. The earliest known extant building by Bush is the 18th Police Precinct Station House (1864-65), 325-327 East 22nd Street, built to replace one at 163 East 22nd Street that had been destroyed by a crowd during the Draft Riots of July 1863.

Others of the ten known surviving Bush- designed station houses in Manhattan include those for: the 3rd Precinct (1868, conversion of an 1850s residence), 160 Chambers Street; 5th Precinct (1868), 19-21 Leonard Street (included in the TriBeCa West Historic District); the 10th Precinct (1868), Essex Market, 105-107 [originally 87-89] Eldridge Street; the 14th Precinct (1870-71), 205- 207 Mulberry Street; the 32nd Precinct (1871-72), 1854 Amsterdam Avenue (a designated New York City Landmark); and the 6th Precinct (1881-82), 19- 21 Elizabeth Street. Bush’s later station house designs, after the late 1870s, began to depart from his earlier, simpler ones and incorporated elements of the Rundbogenstil and the Renaissance Revival and neo-Grec styles.

Bush’s most significant design departure was for the 25th Police Precinct Station House (1886-87), 153-155 East 67th Street (a designated New York City Landmark). The Police Department employed this design as a general prototype for at least four later station houses, including those (also extant) for the 28th Precinct (1892-93), 177-179 East 104th Street; and the 8th Precinct (1893-94, altered), 194 Sixth Avenue [originally 24-26 MacDougal Street].

East Harlem

As Manhattan’s population pushed northward into East Harlem (the area roughly bounded by East 96th and East 142nd Streets, from Fifth Avenue to the Harlem River) in the late nineteenth century, development was spurred by the opening of the Second and Third Avenue elevated railway lines to 125th Street in 1879-80.

Third Avenue had previously become identified as the neighborhood’s major commercial street. A wave of residential construction began to fill the area with tenements, French flats, and rowhouses. Along with this development came new facilities for social, cultural, and religious institutions, as well as buildings for municipal services. East Harlem emerged largely as a working-class community, with influxes over the years of, among others, German, Irish, Russian, Scandinavian, Jewish, and Italian immigrants.

The neighborhood, experiencing a second era of residential development after 1903 as "Old Law" tenements were remodeled and "New Law" tenements replaced older rowhouses, became one of the most densely populated sections of Manhattan. Beginning after World War I, East Harlem became home to a large Puerto Rican community, resulting in the name "Spanish Harlem," although it has been familiarly known as "El Barrio" since World War II.

East Harlem had been served as early as 1844 by a police station in the House of Detention on East 125th Street, between Third and Park Avenues; this housed the 12th Precinct until a new station house was constructed on the same site in 1870 (Nathaniel Bush, architect; demolished) at 146-148 East 126th Street.

This precinct became the 29th Precinct in 1887, at which point it covered the area between 110th and 145th Streets, from Seventh Avenue to the Harlem River, and Randall’s and Ward’s Islands. Costello characterized this precinct in 1885as "grow[ing] daily. More third and fourth-rate houses have been put up here within the past five years than in any other command."

The precinct to the south of this was the 27th Precinct. This had been established as the 23rd Precinct by 1863, was served by a station house (1873, Nathaniel Bush, architect; demolished) at 432-434 East 88th Street, and was re-numbered the 27th Precinct in 1887. Its jurisdiction extended from East 79th Street to East 110th Street, from Fifth Avenue to the East and Harlem Rivers. Costello characterized it in 1885 as "a precinct that is being built up, and there is yet unbuilt territory on which to erect homes for thousands. Within five years one-quarter of what was bare ground has been covered with comfortable houses of superior construction."

As the East Harlem district became more populated and developed in the late nineteenth century, another precinct and a new police station house were needed.

The 28th Police Precinct Station House

The Police Department’s Annual Report for 1890 noted that "Lots for the location of a Station- house on the east side for a Precinct to be made up from portions of the Twenty-seventh and Twenty- ninth Precincts, are now being negotiated for, and when the purchase is completed plans and specifications for the erection of a new Station-house will be at once prepared."

The Annual Report the following year remarked that "Plans and specifications for a new Station-house in East One Hundred and Fourth street are about completed, and work will soon be commenced on the proposed new structure." The site chosen was on the block between Lexington and Third Avenues; the adjacent lot to the west was occupied by Engine Company No. 53 (1884, N. LeBrun & Son) at 175 East 104th Street.

Nathaniel Bush filed an application in April 1892 for a five-story station house, expected to cost about $52,000, as well as for a two-story brick prison and lodging house, at the rear of the lot, to cost $8000. Construction was begun in May 1892, and completed in June 1893; the contractor was John H. Deeves & Brother. The precinct’s police force occupied the building on June 28. The jurisdiction of the new 28th Police Precinct extended from East 96th Street to East 116th Street, and from Central Park (and from Sixth Avenue above 110th Street) to the East River, as well as Ward’s Island.

Faced in red brick and gray granite, the midblock station house is five stories high above a basement. The three-bay facade is articulated as a grid formed by continuous piers and intermediate cornices. The first floor originally had an office with the sergeant’s desk, the captain’s rooms, and sitting rooms. The second through fourth stories held the sergeant’s rooms and dormitories for the patrolmen.

This building was based on a design that Bush had produced for the 25th Police Precinct Station House (1886-87), 153-155 East 67th Street, which was a significant departure from the earlier Bush-designed station houses. He appears to have been inspired by New York skyscraper and commercial building design of the previous decade, combining elements of the Rundbogenstil and Renaissance Revival and neo-Grec styles. The Police Department employed this previous design as a general prototype for the 28th Police Precinct Station House, but in a simplified and less expensive variation.

Later History

After Consolidation, New York’s police precincts were re-numbered in May 1898, and the 28th Precinct became the 29th Precinct. It was renumbered the 39th Precinct in 1908, became the 13th Precinct in 1924, and in 1929 was designated the 23rd Precinct.

The East 104th Street station house served this precinct until a combined facility for the 23rd Police Precinct and the Fire Department opened in 1974 (Milton F. Kirchman, architect) at 164 East 102nd Street. The old station house was put to use as "Hope Community Hall" by Hope Community, Inc., a non-profit housing organization founded in 1968 to "develop, revitalize and beautify East Harlem, a community which had experienced many years of abuse, neglect and abandonment." Purchased at auction in 1981, the building was used by the organization until 1993; it is currently awaiting renovation.

Description

The midblock station house, faced in red brick with gray granite detailing, is five stories high above a basement. The three-bay facade is articulated as a grid formed by continuous piers and intermediate cornices. Windows are one-over-one double-hung wood sash.

Base The central entrance has a broad round- arched granite surround enclosing a paneled reveal, original wood paneled doors, and a transom. Two non-historic light fixtures are afixed to the entrance surround (and replace earlier sconces).

The entrance is reached by steps with metal railings, flanked by cheek walls surmounted by later historic wrought-iron railings; the cheek walls originally held pole lamps (that have been removed). An area way flanks the entrance steps, fronted with historic wrought-iron railings; the basement level has two exposed windows on each side of the entrance (three of the windows have iron bars over them).

The eastern portion of the areaway has metal stairs (with a metal mesh cover) that lead to a basement entrance beneath the main entrance steps. Large, segmental-arched window surrounds in the outer bays contain tripartite windows with transoms. The piers on the first story are rusticated granite.

Upper Section The second through fourth stories have paired round-arched windows set below stone arches in the center bay, and paired segmental- arched windows set below segmental stone arches in the outer bays. The center bay of each story has historic fire escapes with curved, decorative wrought-iron balconies. The upper sash of the two central windows on the second story have been covered with wood. According to a c. 1938 photograph, a flagpole has been placed in the center of the fourth story at least since that time. The fourth story is capped by a bracketed metal neo- Grec style cornice with pedimented terminations above the end piers. The fifth story, only the width of the central bay, contains three round-arched windows (with missing panes and covered with wood) and is capped by a similar bracketed comice.

Jail/Lodging House Structure The original two- story jail/lodging house structure, located at the rear of the Landmark Site and separated from the station house by a yard, is not visible from the street.

– From the 1999 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Posted by Emilio Guerra on 2012-03-20 12:49:12

Tagged: , 02032012 , 02-III-2012 , 03022012 , 2 de marzo de 2012 , 28th Police Precinct Station House , Borough of Manhattan , East Harlem , Landmark , LP-2034 , Manhattan , March 2, 2012 , March 2, 2012 walk , New York , New York City , New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission , New York City, NY , New York County , New York, NY , Nueva York , Nueva York, EE.UU. , Nueva York, Estados Unidos , Nueva York, Nueva York , NY , NY, NY , NYC , NYCLPC , Paseo del 2 de marzo de 2012 , United States , United States of America , Franklin Houses

Great Small House Design Ames, Oakes and Blanche, Borderland, Mansion, 259 Massapoag Avenue, North Easton, MA, info, Easton Historical Society

Ames, Oakes and Blanche, Borderland, Mansion, 259 Massapoag   Avenue, North Easton, MA, info, Easton Historical Society

More information on this image is available at the Easton Historical Society in North Easton, MA
www.flickr.com/photos/historicalimagesofeastonma/albums
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The development by Oliver Ames and Sons Corporation of the factory and village land use in a rather organic manner with a mix work-related classes created an integrated geographic network. The housing on perimeter edge with factories and business affairs in the center creating the village concept in North Easton. Other important concepts were the Furnace Village Cemetery, Furnace Village Grammar School and the Furnace Village Store, which explains Furnace Village and other sections of Easton.
source: Massachusetts Historical Commission
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History of Massapoag Avenue and Borderland Historic District below
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Mansion at Borderland
Like other members of the Ames family in Easton building estates with multiple parcels of land, Oakes and Blanche Ames acquired twenty-seven individual properties to create the seventeen hundred and eighty-two-acre estate. The parcels of land were divided by stonewalls, wire fences, open spaces and forests. Borderland got its name from the location of both ancient tribal borders and modern-day town lines. In 1878, Blanche Ames, born in Lowell, her parents, Adelbert and Blanche Butler Ames, encouraged Blanche toward a higher education and equal opportunity. Exploring new opportunities in the Ames tradition, Blanche enrolled in Smith College, when few women attended college and gave the commencement address at her 1899 graduation exercises. In her address being attended by President McKinley, Blanche told the audience that we are fortunate to live in an age that, more than any other, makes it possible for women to attain the best and truest development in life. Blanche Ames’ husband, Oakes Ames, a member of the Ames family, owners of the Oliver Ames and Sons Corporation at 28 Main Street in North Easton. The son of Governor Oliver Ames, (1831-95) and his wife, Anna Coffin Ames (1840-1917), a great-grandson of shovel shop founder Oliver Ames (1779-1863), Oakes Ames was born in 1874.
In 1900, Oakes Ames grew up at 35 Oliver Street, married Blanche Ames, sister of his classmate Butler Ames of Lowell, two years after graduating from Harvard. On October 22, 1895, Oakes’ father, Oliver Ames, of 35 Oliver Street, passed away. In 1900, Oakes and Blanche Ames began their marriage by living at his childhood home at 35 Oliver Street in North Easton with his widowed mother, Anna Coffin Ames, his two sisters, Evelyn C., and Susan E. Ames. Later, Oakes and Blanche Ames were living at 355 Commonwealth Avenue, the former home of Oakes’ father, Governor Oliver Ames. Oakes and Blanche moved to 225 Bay State Road, also in Boston’s fashionable Back Bay neighborhood. While living on Bay State Road, they began planning for a country estate south of Boston.
In 1906, Oakes and Blanche Ames began their purchases and lived at the newly purchased Col. Israel Tisdale Farmhouse, at 697 Mountain Street in Sharon, located at the northeast of the existing Leach Pond. In 1906, Alice Buck Pratt, of 111 Rockland Street, sold the land to Oakes Ames in two parcels, on the northwest corner of Rockland Street and Allen Road. The first parcel consisted of sixty-nine and one-quarter acres that reserved the William Dean Cemetery – as it is now walled in – and the right to pass to and from the burial ground to Rockland Street. The second parcel was a seventeen and three-quarter acres parcel on the south side of Rockland Street. According to Anna Buck, one of George and Marion Buck’s thirteen children, her records verify Oakes and Blanche Ames rented 111 Rockland Street, her father’s childhood home, to Anna Buck’s family after they returned to Easton in 1911. In 1910, residing at the formerly called Col. Israel Tisdale Farmhouse at 697 Mountain Street were Oakes, a botanist, and his wife, Blanche B. Ames, with their two daughters, Pauline, Evelyn, their two sons, Amyas, and Oliver Ames, with seven servants. By 1910, Oakes and Blanche B. Ames purchased surrounding individual parcels, including a place called – Borderland, – which they called home. There they raised turkeys, pheasants, mink, and cattle. In 1910, the construction of the Mansion started with the building of the library. Blanche calculated the engineering measurements for the causeways and dams built on the ponds surrounding the Mansion. Ames Mansion was constructed on the site of the Currivan farmhouse, which was composed of larger stones and are slightly square. The stonewall running along the original entrance easterly, now a service driveway, continued across the lawn on the south side of the Mansion. Oakes and Blanche Ames used some of the field stones in the construction of the Mansion. Stonewalls in the other parcels were a rougher and round stone configuration. Blanche and Oaks, who wanted a fireproof house, became displeased with the work of their architect because of the challenges he faced with their design and engineering requirements. Dismissing the architect, Blanche took over the design and construction management of the Mansion and hired the Concrete Engineering Company to draw plans according to her specifications. In 1920, residing in the Mansion at 257 Massapoag Avenue were Oakes, a professor of botany, and his wife, Blanche B. Ames, an artist in her own home, with their two daughters, Pauline, and Evelyn, and their two sons, Amyas, and Oliver Ames, with six servants and two chauffeurs. Blanche Ames calculated the engineering measurements for the causeways and dams built on the ponds surrounding the mansion. Once the mansion was completed, Blanche set up a full-size studio on the third floor of the house and maintained a workshop in which she and her brother, Adelbert Ames, developed a scientific color system for mixing paints. Blanche became the sole illustrator of her husband’s botanical books, including a seven-volume treatise on orchids. Oaks Ames was a renowned authority on orchids and taught botany at Harvard from 1900 until his retirement in 1941. The rear of the Mansion had the tennis courts, rolling hills towards the fields and pool. The Mansion at Borderland featured landscaping around the immediate grounds. In 1930, living at 257 Massapoag Avenue were Oakes, a Professor of Botany at Harvard, and his wife, Blanche B. Ames, an artist in her Iron Studio, with their daughter, Evelyn, and their two sons, Amyas, and Oliver Ames, assistant manager at the Ames Shovel and Tool Company, Inc., with two servants. Plantings around the house include shrubs and shade trees and perennial flowers. A vegetable garden was located to the west of the house. The garden was bordered by raspberry bushes running along the tree line of the fields. Oaks and Blanche created a system of ponds and dams throughout their estate. The sculpted hedge along the circular drive was destroyed in the Blizzard of 1978, which was restored at the direction of Pauline Plimpton, Oakes and Blanche’s daughter. A formal rock garden, designed by Oakes Ames, was built to the north of the house, complete with stone paths, steps, and benches. In the 1970s, under the direction of Oakes and Blanche’s grandson, T. P. Plimpton, the rock garden was reconstructed with some of the original flowering trees. These include flowering crab trees, dogwoods, lilac, forsythia, and burning bush. The reconstruction was a recreation of the historic planting plan by Oakes Ames. In the center of the rock garden is a wooden trellis set on granite columns, on which climbs Borderland’s Great Wisteria. The circulation system of the Ames estate also remains intact, including the circular drive in front of the Mansion and several unpaved roads throughout the former estate. Oakes Ames was the youngest son of Governor Oliver and Anna C. Ames and was well known for his botanist and orchid expertise. At the age of fifteen, Oakes took an interest in orchids while studying in Easton on the origin of plant life in different regions or times. Following his graduation from Harvard in 1898, Oakes started the Ames Botanical Laboratory at Harvard, becoming a world-known center for the study of orchids and economic botany. In 1900, Oakes Ames started teaching in the field of botany at Harvard. Later, Oakes became Research Professor and Director of the Botanical Museum until his retirement in 1941. Blanche Ames; a scientific illustrator provided the illustrations for her husband’s book on orchids. Blanche Ames, was a multi-talented inventor and illustrator, who was involved in art, farming, engineering and politics.
Blanche Ames was a suffragist, an early advocate of birth control, and late in life Blanche wrote a biography of her father, Adelbert Ames. Blanche Ames was interested in farming working with the staff of the Borderland estate and devised plans for developing a larger, more disease-resistant turkey. Blanche was the co-founder of the Birth Control League of Massachusetts and the Treasurer of the League of Women Voters from 1915 to 1918. Blanche was well known for her political cartoons depicting the struggle for women’s suffrage. In 1939, Blanche, an inventor designed a hexagonal lumber cutter. In 1940, residing at 257 Massapoag Avenue were Oakes, a professor of botany, and his wife, Blanche B. Ames, with a son, Oliver Ames, a trustee, and one housekeeper. During World War II, Blanche Ames designed, tested and patented a method for ensnaring enemy airplanes in wires hung from balloons. It must be noted in history that Blanche Ames painted every painting in the mansion with one exception. In 1969, Blanche Ames received a patent for a water anti-pollution device. Borderland’s grounds were used in Massachusetts State Lottery commercials that showed men playing croquet on the lawn. Born in New York City in 1927, George Plimpton, son of Pauline Ames Plimpton, who was the daughter of Oakes and Blanche Ames, spent summers during his childhood at Borderland. George had a sister, Sarah Gay Plimpton, two brothers, Francis Taylor Pearsons Plimpton Jr., and Oakes Ames Plimpton. During the formative years of Borderland becoming a state park, Oakes Plimpton was a frequent visitor to the park noting the progress from an estate to a passive state park. George Plimpton, co-founder of the Paris Review, was known for his efforts in sports with the Detroit LIons in – Paper Lions, – Boston Bruins in – Open Net, – Willie Mays in – Out of My League, – pro golf in – Bogey Man, – and fought Archie Moore and Sugar Ray Robinson for articles in the Sports Illustrated. George was a classmate at Harvard University of Robert Kennedy and helped get the gun away from Sirhan Sirhan when Robert Kennedy was assassinated in 1968. A television documentary about Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt was filmed in the library of the Ames mansion. When Blanche Ames died in 1969, she left the seventeen hundred and eighty-two acres estate to her four children, who conveyed the property to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1971 following the wishes of the Ames family for a passive state park.
source; Massachusetts Historical Commission
source; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Conservation and Recreation
source; Borderland State Park
source: History of Easton, William L. Chaffin, 1886
source: Easton’s Neighborhoods, Edmund C. Hands, 1995
source; Massachusetts Historical Commission
source: Easton Patch, Michael Hardman, May 16, 2013
,
Currivan Farmhouse at Borderland
In 1851, residing at the property, later known as the Currivan Farmhouse, at 257 Massapoag Avenue were Eliphalet, a shoemaker, and Ermina Randall Wilson, with their two daughters, Ermina L., Keziah F., their eight sons, Granville O., a shoemaker, Andrew A., a shoemaker, George H., a shoemaker, Edgar N., John B., Harrison Y., Eliphalet S., and Charles L. Wilson. On May 10, 1830, Eliphalet Wilson married Ermina Randall, daughter of John and Keziah Littlefield Randall in Easton. In 1850, residing in the neighborhood were Eliphalet, a shoemaker, and his wife, Ermina Randall Wilson, with their two daughters, Ermina L., Keziah F. Wilson, and their eight sons, Granville O., a shoemaker, Andrew A., a shoemaker, George H., a shoemaker, Edgar N., John B., Harrison Y., Eliphalet S., and Charles L. Wilson.
In 1851, Currivan Farm was built by Eliphalet Wilson at the location of the Mansion. Eliphalet Wilson, a lifelong resident of Easton and a farmer, used the land for cattle grazing and farming. In 1870, residing on the farm property were Eliphalet, a farmer, and his wife, Ermina Randall Wilson, with their son, Charles L. Wilson, working on the family farm. On April 26, 1875, Eliphalet Wilson passed away at the age of sixty-seven, with his burial at the Spring Brook Cemetery in Mansfield.
In 1886, Michael F. and Mary Dromey Currivan purchased the farm to be historically named the Currivan Farm. On November 12, 1863, Michael F. Currivan was born to Charles, a boot maker, and Catherine Currivan of Stoughton. On June 24,1890, Michael F. Currivan married Mary Dromey in the Immaculate Church of 193 Main Street by Father William J. McComber. In 1900, residing on the Currivan Farm were Michael F., a farmer and a grinder, and his wife, Mary Dromey Currivan, with their daughter, Mary, their four sons, John Joseph, Thomas E., William Lawrence, and Michael Francis Currivan, Jr. A historical image taken in North Easton with Thomas Currivan, his sister, Mary Agnes Rathbun Currivan, and their mother, Mary Dromey Currivan, at the Currivan Farmhouse. On July 16, 1904, records show Michael F. Currivan passed away. In 1906, the family of Michael F. and Mary Dromey Currivan sold the Currivan Farmhouse to Oakes and Blanche Ames.
In 1910, Oakes and Blanche Ames removed the farmhouse to build the Mansion on a solid foundation. The foundation for the old Currivan house can be seen at the northwest corner of the library and the edge of the rock garden. Currivan Corn Crib used to be located where the visitor entrance from the parking lot. Oakes and Blanche Ames purchased individual properties one at a time. Borderland is made up of several parcels of land, divided by stonewalls, wire fences, and forests. These boundary demarcations can still be seen today. Walls in the vicinity of the Mansion, associated with the Currivan Farm, are composed of larger stones and are slightly square.
The stonewall that runs along the service road to the west of the Mansion once continued across the lawn behind the house. Oakes and Blanche Ames removed this wall during the construction of the Mansion. Some of the stones from walls were used in the construction of the Mansion. Walls at other sites are of a rougher, round stone configuration. When Blanche Ames died in 1969, she left the seventeen hundred and eighty-two acres estate to her four children, who conveyed the property to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1971 following the wishes of the Ames family for a passive state park.
source; Massachusetts Historical Commission
source; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Conservation and Recreation
source; Borderland State Park
source: History of Easton, William L. Chaffin, 1886
source; Massachusetts Historical Commission
,
Colonel Israel Tisdale Farmhouse at Borderland
The Colonel Israel Tisdale Farmhouse was one of the first purchases made by Oakes and Blanche Ames in 1906. Around 1635, John Tisdale was born to Thomas and Ruth Tisdale. In 1614, Thomas and Ruth Tisdale came to United States from Ripon, Yorkshire to live in Duxbury around 1637, Taunton in 1650. John Tisdale married Sarah Walker in 1635, with eight children between 1642 through 1658 including the father of Colonel Israel Tisdale. In 1843, John Tisdale joined a military company. From 1650 through 1658, John Tisdale was a selectman, a constable from 1655 through 1659, and Plymouth Court Representative, from 1674 through 1675. On June 27, 1675, colonial records show that John Tisdale was killed by the Indians. In 1775, Colonel Israel Tisdale’s parents were Edward and Ruth Harlow Tisdale, with his sister and brother, Betsey and Edward Tisdale, Jr. Israel’s father, Edward Tisdale became a private in Capt. Edward Bridge Saville’s company in Lexington, Colonel Robinson’s regiment. Edward came home to the town of Stoughtonham, (now Sharon), following serving in Colonel Gill’s regiment at Dorchester Hill.
In 1706, Capt. Joseph Tisdale, Jr., eldest son of Joseph and Mary Tisdale, and great-grandfather of Col. Israel Tisdale, married Ruth Reed, with seven children including Ebenezer Tisdale. Capt. Ebenezer Tisdale was born in Taunton. In 1723, Ebenezer married Priscilla Drake, followed by moving to Stoughtonham, as previously mentioned, name changed to Sharon in 1783. Captain Ebenezer and Priscilla Drake Tisdale moved thirteen miles north on the future site at 697 Mountain Street in Sharon, of his grandson, Colonel Israel Tisdale. On April 19, 1775, Captain Ebenezer Tisdale was on the Lexington Alarm Roll, which marched from Stoughtonham. Captain Tisdale was an inspector during the Revolution and represented Stoughtonham (Sharon) for the ratification of the Federal Constitution followed by serving in the State Senate. In 1780, Colonel Israel Tisdale was born to Edward and Ruth Harlow Tisdale. Colonel Israel Tisdale was twice married as his first wife preceded him in death. On December 1, 1781, Colonel Israel Tisdale married Susannah Talbot, daughter of Deacon Josiah and Susannah Morse Talbot.
During the early 1800s, Colonel Israel Tisdale was well known for his farming and involvement in the militia movement. Colonel Israel Tisdale was a prominent and influential man in his neighborhood of Bay Road in Easton and Sharon. He did not reside on Bay Road, but half a mile to the west at 697 Mountain Street. Colonel Israel Tisdale created the Colonel Israel Tisdale’s Farm homestead. In 1810, Colonel Israel Tisdale started building a house on the property of Captain Ebenezer Tisdale replacing Ebenezer’s first house quickly going to decay.
Colonel Israel Tisdale spent years collecting lumber and material before starting to build the house. Colonel Israel Tisdale finished the house, with seven beds all neatly in place. Tisdale was having breakfast when he noticed a small fire in the north room. The carpenters lost all their tools and seven out of nine carpenters went home bareheaded. Israel was able to save his private papers, his whiskers being singed in the attempt. Relatives and friends encouraged Israel to rebuild at 697 Mountain Street. General Shepard Leach was framing his own house of the same size. General Leach gave him the frame, and the new house was completed in six weeks’ time. On October 15, 1813, Susannah Talbot Tisdale passed away in Sharon. History has its own stories about the farming methods and products that earned Colonel Israel Tisdale the reputation as Sharon’s most successful farmer. The homestead remained in possession of the Tisdale’s family until 1906. In that year, the property now known at 697 Mountain Road in Sharon was purchased by Oakes, son of former Governor Oliver and Anna Coffin Ames of 35 Oliver Street, and his wife, Blanche Ames. Oakes and Blanche Ames were looking for a country style estate in the country.
Although it is not part of Easton, the parcel was included in the Oakes and Blanche Ames Estate as it was associated with the Tisdale family. On May 15, 1900, Oakes Ames married Blanche Ames in Easton, daughter of Adelbert and Blanche A. Butler Ames. According to U. S. Census in 1900, residing on Main Street, now, 35 Oliver Street were Oakes and Blanche Ames with Oakes’ mother, widow Anna Coffin Ames, with her two daughters, Evelyn C., and Susan E, Ames, and eight servants. Between 1900 and 1910, Oakes and Blanche Ames were residing at the home of Governor Oliver and Anna Coffin Ames at 355 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston. In 1902, the Boston Massachusetts City Directory listed Oakes Ames residing at 355 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston. Oakes and Blanche Ames added to the house adding two dormers on the second floor in the Colonial Revival style.
In 1910, residing at 697 Mountain Street in Sharon were Oakes, and his wife, Blanche Ames, with their three daughters, Pauline, Amyas, and Evelyn Ames, and their son, Oliver Ames, and seven servants. Prior to moving to 697 Mountain Street, Oakes and Blanche Ames resided in the summer – Bay View – in Gloucester and – The Whim – in Ormond Beach, Florida, both part of the estate of Blanche’s mother. Like other members of the Ames family, they purchased the surrounding parcels one at a time similar to Spring Hill, Wayside, Stone House Hill House, Sheep Pasture and Langwater. By 1910, Oakes and Blanche Ames owned seventeen hundred and eighty-two acres where they raised turkeys, pheasants, mink, and cattle. Oakes and Blanche started calling their country home – Borderland – during this time. Oakes Ames’ speculation had a second quarry exists in the area, maybe north of the Mansion or the land surrounding the Colonel Israel Tisdale Farmhouse. Land use ranged from subsistence-oriented farming at the Currivan Farm to more profit-oriented farming at the Colonel Israel Tisdale Farmhouse. Large, grassy fields, cleared in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by the Wilbur, Tisdale, Smith, Currivan and Leach families, were consolidated in the 20th century by the Ames family. Oakes and Blanche Ames converted the farmland for horticultural and recreational purposes. Prior to Oakes and Blanche Ames owning the property of the Colonel Israel Tisdale Farmhouse, iron ore was mined from the swamp now known as Upper and Lower Leach Pond by General Shepard Leach. In 1908, Oakes Ames stated in his diary that he had not found a quarry. Determination has not been made if he was writing about the Ames Mansion or Tisdale House. Around 1940, Oakes and Blanche Ames converted low lands west of the Colonel Israel Tisdale Farmhouse into the Upper Leach Pond spreading over twenty-five acres of land. In 1984, Colonel Israel Tisdale Farmhouse burnt to the ground. The foundation, front walk, the garden steps, and lawns of the farmhouse and the foundation of the barn can be seen on the property at 697 Mountain Street. Oakes and Blanche Ames protected the land interests of the family of wealthy horticulturists and nature-lovers. Also, Oakes and Blanche Ames preserved eighteen and nineteen century pastures and fields for their aesthetic and scientific value. When Blanche Ames died in 1969, she left the seventeen hundred and eighty-two-acre estate to her four children, who conveyed the property to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1971 following the wishes of the Ames family for a passive state park.
source; Massachusetts Historical Commission
source; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Conservation and Recreation
source; Borderland State Park
source: Easton’s Neighborhoods, Edmund C. Hands, 1995
source; Massachusetts Historical Commission
Source: Rich Eastman
,
Borderland Historic District
The Borderland Historic District in Easton/Sharon, Massachusetts is a twentieth-century estate preserving eighteenth-century farmland, forest, and waterways. The district, now largely Borderland State Park, includes several farm buildings, farmland, cemeteries and a 20th century estate, complete with mansion, pool (now filled in), gardens, and lawns. Located on the borders between Easton, Sharon, and Stoughton, the area has changed from tribal land of Native Americans to farmland of early settlers to the country estate of Oakes and Blanche Ames. The district as it stands today is largely defined being open fields, man-made ponds, stonewalls, and other site features.
source: Massachusetts Historical Commission
,
Further down the brook (from Puds Pond), General Shepherd Leach, owner of the Furnace Village Iron Works in South Easton, cut down a stand of white cedar and mined the bog-iron ore from the exposed swamp. In 1825, he built the pond that bears his name to ensure a steady water supply for his iron works three miles downstream
source; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Conservation and Recreation
source; Borderland State Park
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Massapoag Avenue
Massapoag Avenue extends from Poquanticut Avenue, past No. Six Schoolhouse, to the Sharon line. The part north of Rockland Street was laid out in 1824, and after some delay was adopted. The rest of it was finally laid out in 1834.
source: History of Easton, William L. Chaffin, 1886

Posted by Historical Images of Easton, Massachusetts, Bristo on 2014-05-25 12:12:12

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Great Small House Plan (Former) Public School 28

(Former) Public School 28

Historic Richmond Town, Staten Island, New York City, New York

Opened in September 1908, Public School 28 was one of many new schools that were built on Staten Island by the New York City Board of Education in the decade following the consolidation of Greater New York in 1898.

Located in the historic community of Richmondtown, which served as the governmental center of Richmond County from 1729 to 1898, it replaced an earlier school that was originally known as Northfield Township District School No. 1. The new school was designed by C.B.J. Snyder, Superintendent of School Buildings, who was responsible for the planning, design, and construction of all new and expanded schools in the five boroughs.

Most of Snyder’s schools were designed for urban and suburban settings. However, Public School 28, a small school in a rural setting, is extraordinary in his body of work, being only one of three of this type designed by Snyder and the only one that survives. The Tudor Revival style building has a prominent gable facing Center Street, featuring timbers and rough plaster, brackets, a bargeboard, and a finial.

Other prominent features include a pair of tall windows set below a terra-cotta label molding and twin covered porches, featuring broad masonry stairs, tapered wood columns and brackets. The school was discontinued in 1965 when a new, larger public school (No. 23) opened nearby, and then served a variety of uses for the Board of Education, including the accommodation of P.S. 23 overflow from 1974 to 1976.

In 1981 the Staten Island Historical Society acquired the school from the Board of Education. It now houses the society’s Education Department, library, archives, and curatorial storage. Public School 28, which remains largely intact, is a rare survivor, recalling Richmondtown’s rural heritage in the post-consolidation period of Staten Island history.

The Development of Richmondtown

Richmond County, encompassing all of Staten Island, was established in 1683 as one of the twelve original counties of New York, with Stony Brook, now Egbertville, its official county seat. Previously, the residents of Staten Island had relied on the Court of Sessions at Gravesend, Brooklyn, for the administration of laws, while the center of political activity on the island was at Oude Dorp, near the present South Beach.

In 1711, the county government built a prison in the tiny village of Coccles Town, which was considered a superior location for conducting governmental business due to its location at the island’s geographical center, near the converging of roads leading to all parts of the island and at the head of the navigable Fresh Kills.

In 1729, Coccles Town was officially chosen to be the new county seat and was renamed Richmond. A new county court house was constructed there that year.

British troops occupied Richmond during the Revolutionary War, establishing quarters in many of the village’s buildings, burning the court house and other buildings upon their departure. Many changes took place after the war as Staten Island grew. Richmond was incorporated as a village within the Town of Southfield in 1823, and was formally laid out with building lots in 1836 by Henry L Seaman, the secretary of the company that operated the plank road that is now Richmond Avenue.

Due to the financial panic of 1837, the village was slow to develop as a residential area, but its importance as the island’s governmental center continued to grow. A new court house was built in 1836-37, and the County Clerk’s and Surrogate’s office and a jail were constructed in 1848 and 1860, respectively. By the mid-nineteenth century, Richmondtown’s position as the political and social focus of the island was secure.

In 1874, nearly forty years after a street pattern was planned and building lots laid out, the village remained sparsely developed, consisting of a handful of governmental buildings, churches, several residential buildings, and two factories, all of which lined the major roads, such as Richmond Road and Fresh Kills Road, and the original village streets, such as Court Place and Center Street. Large estates sprawled beyond the small village center.

After Staten Island became a borough of Greater New York in 1898, governmental activity on the island began to shift to St. George on the north shore and Richmondtown’s importance as the island’s governmental center began to decline. Its residential growth, however, continued. By 1907, a trolley line was running along Richmond Road and a residential community radiated from the core of the town.

The 1907 Atlas of the Borough of Richmond, City of New York identifies a lot at the corner of Center Street and Garretson Avenue (now St. Patrick’s Place) as a "City of New York School Site." Construction of Public School 28 began that year on that site. By 1919, the last of the county offices located in Richmondtown were transferred to St. George, and the old county buildings were abandoned.

In the early 1930s, the Staten Island Historical Society, which had been reorganized in 1920, persuaded the city to fund the rehabilitation of the vacant County Clerk’s Office and the County Court House for use as the society’s library and historical museum. In 1939, the Society turned its attention to the acquisition and restoration of the Voorlezer’s House, built c.1695, the oldest extant elementary school house in the United States.

In the following decades, the Historical Society purchased other historic buildings and land in the area and established Richmondtown Restoration as a living museum of Staten Island and metropolitan history. The Richmondtown Restoration became a joint endeavor between the Staten Island Historical Society and the City of New York in the 1950s.

Subsequently, other historic properties in the area, including former Public School 28, were acquired and restored. Additionally, a number of threatened historic buildings from other parts of the island were moved to the Restoration’s property and also restored. The greater Richmondtown area continued to develop as a residential community, much of it concentrated in the decades following World War II, the opening of the Verrazano Narrows Bridge, and in the boom years of the 1980s.

Public Schools on Staten Island

Prior to the consolidation of Greater New York in 1898, the schools on Staten Island were under the jurisdiction of the Richmond County Superintendent of Schools and the State of New York. These public schools were known as "common schools" in the nineteenth century.

In 1854, local school districts, organized and numbered by township, were given the power to select sites for schools and raise the money to construct and maintain schoolhouses, in addition to other supervisory powers. Common school districts received financial support from state sources and school district taxes; some continued to use the rate bill system and assessed parents

according to the number of children they sent to school. Public School 28’s predecessor was originally Northfield Township District School No. 1. Northfield had eight school districts, which were centered on the villages and numbered in order of establishment.

During the last half of the nineteenth century, presumably all of the school districts on Staten Island erected schoolhouses, which varied widely in design and size since each district was responsible for its own facilities. The increase in the population on the island throughout that period, however, taxed the adequacy of even the best-planned and largest facilities.

By the 1870s, the various townships began constructing new schools in response to the problem. Nevertheless, the persistent inadequate and overcrowded conditions of many of the schools on Staten Island prompted the County Superintendent to report that the public was generally taking a greater interest in schools and education, in contrast to the "good enough" attitude that had prevailed.

During the 1890s over twenty district schoolhouses were erected on Staten Island. The growing population and the enforcement of the Compulsory Education Act, adopted in 1894, prompted the school construction boom. Richmond County Superintendent of Schools Julia K. West, who held the position from 1894 to 1898, oversaw most of this construction.

The work on Staten Island occurred at the same time as the extensive construction of schoolhouses throughout New York State during the 1890s. The construction of a school on Staten Island prior to the consolidation of Greater New York in 1898 was directed by the School District Board of Trustees.

Following consolidation, school construction on the island and throughout the city was controlled by the Board of Education of the City of New York. In the decade that followed, several new schools were opened on Staten Island and a number of existing schoolhouses were replaced, such as Public School 28; others were expanded. These buildings and additions were overseen by C.B.J. Snyder, Superintendent of School Buildings for the Board of Education of the City of New York.

C.B.J. Snyder

Charles B.J. Snyder (1860-1945), Superintendent of School Buildings, was the architect responsible for the planning, design, and construction of all new and expanded schools in the five boroughs after consolidation.

Appointed to this position in 1891, when he oversaw only Manhattan and the annexed district of the Bronx, Snyder remained in that post until 1923. Little is known of his background beyond his birth in Stillwater, N.Y., and his architectural study with William E. Bishop. He was first listed in New York City directories in 1886, and remained in practice until around 1936.

A specialist in school design, Snyder was recognized as a national leader in this regard as early as 1905:

Possibly it was not the best, probably it way not the most economical, certainly it was not the most expeditious way to have all the school-houses the city stood in such sore need of designed and built by the official architect to the Department of Education. But, since that method had to be followed, it is a matter of wonderful good fortune that the official architect chanced to be such a man as is Mr. C.B.J. Snyder, who not only at the outset showed such distinct capacity for his task, but has proved himself a man able to grow as his opportunities opened before him. Mr. Wheelwright in Boston, Mr. Ittner in St. Louis, Mr. Mundie in Chicago, have done excellent service to their respective cities in the way of building school-houses… but they have not had to do their work under the same sort of pressure that has been put upon Mr. Snyder, and they have not had to adapt their architectural treatment to as closely restricted sites.

Snyder’s achievement was particularly remarkable given the scale of new school construction in New York: "The magnitude of the undertaking and the reality of the need for these new school-houses is shown by the fact that, even after several years of active building, there are at this time seventy-seven school-houses in various stages of completeness now in charge of the architect to the Department of Education, while contracts for twenty-four more will shortly be made."

Snyder’s concern with health and safety issues in public schools focused on fire protection, ventilation, lighting, and classroom size. The problem of school design in New York was heightened by relatively constricted sites which were necessitated by the high cost of land acquisition.

As a result, Snyder introduced the efficient "H-pIan" having two side courts, which provided increased light and ventilation, as well as areas for safe recreation.

The use of steel skeleton framing for buildings over four stories high allowed for cheaper and faster construction an increased number of windows. Because of the need to produce so many buildings in such as short span of time, Snyder’s

office built upon the design and planning ideas of earlier schools as it produced new ones.

Embracing a variety of architectural styles, Snyder’s schools were considered inventive, handsome, and appropriate as civic monuments. His earliest designs continued the Romanesque Revival style of George W. Debevoise, his predecessor as Superintendent of School Buildings, but Snyder later moved into other idioms, such as Jacobean, Dutch Renaissance, Colonial, and Beaux Arts, and he was credited with the introduction of the Collegiate Gothic style to New York public school architecture, a style which he successfully used for more than twenty years.

Since most of Snyder’s schools were designed for urban and suburban settings, Public School 28, a small school in a rural setting, was extraordinary in his body of work. For its design, Snyder chose a simplified version of the Tudor Revival style that was popular at the time for suburban residential architecture.

Public School 28

In 1905, the Associate Superintendent of Schools, A.P. Marble, reported to the Board of Education that growth in the populations of Queens and Staten Island would require building several new schools to relieve overcrowding. On December 13 of the same year, the Board appropriated $4000 to purchase a vacant lot at the corner of Center Street and Garretson Avenue (now St. Patrick’s Place) in Richmondtown for the construction of a new Public School 28.

The existing Public School 28, which stood at the intersection of Fresh Kills, Richmond Hill, and Old Mill Roads, had become deteriorated, overcrowded, and "poorly situated to serve the pupils of the district."

The land was purchased from Stephen D. Stephens for $4127.50 on February 1906. In December 1906, the Committee on Buildings reported to the Board regarding Public School 28 that "plans and specifications for improvement thereof are now underway."

On June 26, 1907, construction plans for the new school, consisting of four classrooms, playrooms, and a basement janitor’s office, were approved.16 Two weeks later, the general construction contract was awarded by bid to Lawrence J. Rice. The total cost of the school was $48,410, including land acquisition, general construction, heating, electric, and furnishings. It opened in September 1908.

In planning Public School 28, Snyder retained the basic form that had been used by the designers of several existing, pre-consolidation public schools on rural Staten Island. These buildings consisted of one or one-and-a-half stories, with complex hipped and gabled roofs and a central belfry. However, the earlier schools17 were made of wood, whereas Public School 28 is of brick. Snyder designed two other rural Staten Island schools following a similar plan: Public School 618 (c.1900) in Rossviile and Public School 33 (1905) in Grant City.

Both have been demolished. The Tudor Revival style, which was widely used at the time for suburban houses, was unusual for a New York City school. Snyder may have chosen that style to distinguish the school from the Colonial, Federal, and Greek Revival architecture of the older residences and governmental buildings surrounding it. Nevertheless, the school’s Tudor vocabulary is minimal, limited mainly to the half-timbered gable, roof brackets, bargeboard, finial, porches, and label moldings.

The school’s louvered cupola, however, is more characteristic of schoolhouse architecture.

Subsequent History

Public School 28 was given the title the "Richmond School" in 1916, when the Board of Education was assigning vanity names to all of the city’s public schools.19 The school was discontinued in 1965 when a new, larger public school (P.S. 23) opened nearby, and then served a variety of uses for the Board of Education, including the accommodation of P.S. 23 overflow from 1974 to 1976. In 1981 the Staten Island Historical Society acquired the school from the Board of Education.20 It now houses the society’s Education Department, library, archives, and curatorial storage.

Description

Former Public School 28 is a one-story brick building with original front and rear wings, and two, later rear additions. The school stands on high ground at the corner of Center Street and St. Patrick’s Place, with a terraced lawn and concrete steps with iron railings leading from Center Street. The building has a high basement and a low hipped roof.

A small octagonal cupola with louvers and a conical roof sits at the peak of the roof and eyebrow windows, now sealed, sit on the roof slopes above the side facades. The windows contain multi-pane wood sash covered with mesh grilles.

At the north side a wing extends out from the main rectangular block of the building. The wing has a gable roof with its end facing the street. The gable contains a louvered attic vent, and features timbers and rough plaster in the Tudor style, brackets, a bargeboard, and a finial. The name of the school is carved in the timbers.

On the main floor the wing has a coupled pair of tall windows set below a terra-cotta label molding. The basement has two rectangular windows. Twin covered porches

with tapered wood columns and brackets, extend to either side of the wing. Broad masonry stairs with brick side walls topped with slate coping lead to main entrances, which are located on the sides of the wing.

The west facade of the main block contains tall, grouped windows with terra-cotta labels on the main floor and smaller basement windows. Stairs and areaways lead to basement-level entrances. The facade is topped by a bracketed, wood cornice. A tall brick smoke stack for the furnace stands near the north corner of the west facade. The east facade is similar, but includes a shorter window on the north side and a coal shute at basement level.

At the rear, an original wing extends out from the main rectangular block of the building. It is similarly detailed to the main block and contains a ground level entrance at the rear.

Later alterations include the additional one- and two-story rear wings constructed in the early- and mid-twentieth century, respectively; the replacement of all doors with non-historic doors; the installation of security lighting; and the addition of an aluminum stack at the rear.

– From the 1998 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Posted by Emilio Guerra on 2009-09-06 18:17:59

Tagged: , Ciudad de Nueva York , New York City , New York, New York , Nueva York , NYC , NYC, NY , Staten Island , 4.9.2009 , 4 de septiembre de 2009 , 4.IX.2009 , Historic Richmond Town , Richmond Restoration , (Former) Public School 28 , Landmark , New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission , NYCLPC , LP-2021 , Richmond County , SI

amazing Small House Plan 08b 2756 Raymond Ave – English-Elizabethan (E)

08b 2756 Raymond Ave - English-Elizabethan (E)

Adams-Normandie Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ)

We began our adventure to ANNA (Adams-Normandie Historic Preservation Overlay Zone) at our former favorite old haunt, La Barca, for Carne Asada and Carnitas Burritos. After a very unsatisfying lunch (they’ve gone down hill since we were last there several years ago) we headed into ANNA with a goal to photograph the Van Buren National Register Historic District.

Along the way we found some wonderful things: ghost signs, a house moved from the West Adams Heights neighborhood a few blocks away, two worn and aging grand dames on West Adams Boulevard, a wonderful hidden estate on Budlong (now sadly carved into apartments), and more than a few fabulous houses on Raymond and (of course) Van Buren.

01. Commercial Building, 1907 to 1913
1419 W 24th St
T. Widd’s Sub
“Dye Works and Trading Co.” reads the ghost sign. A little lower is, “Suits Dresses, and _____.”

02. Commercial Building, 1912 to 1920
1425 W 24th St
T. Widd’s Sub
The ghost signs here are a little harder to make out. “Napps Van_tio_aul” Below is, “Feed and Fuel,” which is a clue to it’s age. The later vertical sign attached to the front reads, “Storage & Moving.”

03. House, 1912 (Moved, remodeled and divided into apartments)
2401 Catalina St
Kenwood Park Tract
Possibly Dennis and Farwell
We know this house, because we first saw it in an early 1900’s promotion of a nearby tract called West Adams Heights. The house in the photo is reverse, but that wasn’t uncommon for the time. If it’s the same house (and we’re pretty sure it is), then it was built earlier and probably moved to this location in 1912, when the main streets around West Adams Heights were beginning to go commercial. After further investigation, if it turns out to be the same house, then it was probably built around 1905 by the architecture team of Dennis and Farwell. Anyone up for a friendly wager?

04. House, c. 1899
1514 W Adams Blvd
Montgomery Tract
The Tax Assessor’s Office indicate this stately Victorian was built in 1908. An obvious mistake. It’s not impossible, but highly doubtful the owners would commission a house in one of the most fashionable districts, in a style ten years out of date. It’s currently undergoing renovation. Lets hope it’s for the best.

05. House, 1899
1528 W Adams Blvd
Montgomery Tract
This faded Shingle Styled late Victorian Grand Dame recalls a bygone era. You can imagine just how proud the neighborhood must have been in it’s heyday. Now, most of it’s neighbors are gone, and these two houses at the corner of Juliette and West Adams Boulevard look a little . . . stranded.

06. House (Former Estate), 1908
2739 S Budlong Ave
Reeds Sub
The houses south of West Adams Boulevard on Juliette and Budlong are a strange collection, which appear to have been transported here and set down, jumbled without much thought or reason, or planning. Most of them are FUBAR, but it’s evident that most were designed for lots larger than the ones they now occupy. Perhaps they were in the path of the Santa Monica Freeway and saved (sort of). But, among this odd collection, on Budlong, is a large house set back far from the street, with a charming (but dilapidated) river rock wall and a massive Moreton Bay Fig. It’s a wonderful estate now converted to apartments. Who lived here? No idea, but the house seem familiar in a Maxim de Winter-Manderley sort of way. The shape, size, and style are indicative of an architecture team like Hunt and Burns or Hunt and Eager. Caroline Eve (a lovely name) was employed here as a domestic, according to the 1915 City Directory. If you know anything about this house, please leave a note. We’d love to know.

08. House, 1905
2756 Raymond Ave
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
A fine example of a transitional English Styled (or Elizabethan as it was often called then, or sometimes Tudor) house as styles were moving from the Victorian to the Craftsman.

09. Repath Residence, 1907
2750 Raymond Ave
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
According to the 1909 City Directory Chas. H. And Ruth M. Repath resided in this charming Craftsman Chalet home. Mr. Repath appears to have been a partner in Repath and MeGregor, Mechanical Engineers, located at 606 S Hill St. By 1915 a Mark B. Smith, Oil, was in residence. The house is asymmetrical, with mild chalet features.

10. Lang Residence, 1909
2749 Raymond Ave
Akin and Cass Sub
Transitional Victorian/Craftsman with Tudor elements.
Frank M. Tyler (Tyler and Company)
Even without pulling the property permits, we can confidently tell you this house was designed by Frank M. Tyler, and probably built on spec by Tyler and Company. It’s a typical, well-executed Tyler plan. Although this one was originally a single-family house. It was the home of Aug. T. Lang, President of the Iroquois Bottling Co, according to the 1909 City Directory.

11. Couch House, 1904
2744 Raymond Ave
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
A solid and masculine Craftsman home. Notice the inventive support (or lack thereof) on the left side of the porch, and the charming widows weep. According to the 1909 City Directory, Geo S Couch was listed as living here.

12. Laupheimer House, 1907
2740 Raymond Ave
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
The clean lines, strong porch column, asymmetrical facade, open gables, and especially the sideways double gable point to Hudson and Munsell as the architect of this beautiful Craftsman home. More investigation here is needed. It appears Mrs. Effie E Laupheimer was the resident here, according to the 1909 City Directory.

13. Montanya House, 1906
2734 Raymond Ave
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
Mrs. Loretta de la Montanya is listed in the 1909 City Directory as residing in this charming Craftsman home, which is now unfortunately painted blue. Picture the creosote shingles, and the architecture pops! Again, the Hudson and Munsell hallmarks are present, so more investigation is needed.

14. Hood House, 1905
2729 Raymond Ave
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
Mr. Walter T. Hook, in mining, may have been the first owner of this picturesque transitional Victorian/Craftsman. Although since it was built in 1905 and Mr. Hook is listed in the 1909 City Directory, he may not have been the original owner.

15. Foster House, 1906
2708/10 Raymond Ave
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
A full-on Colonial among Craftsman homes. The way the windows line up on the south side of the house would indicate the house was always a duplex, however in the 1909 City Directory only one family is listed here. It was the home of Newton H Foster, purchasing agent for the Salt Lake Rte. (Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad, incorporated in 1901 by Senator Clark). Either the Fosters had no neighbors in 1909, or the house was carefully converted early on. Their domestic was a Ms. Clara Vance.

16. Osborne House, 1904/11
2703 Raymond Ave
Akin and Cass Sub
One of the earlier houses on Raymond, it’s obviously had some remodeling. The roof line is incorrect, and it’s now an apartment building. It’s pure Craftsman. According to the 1909 City Directory it was owned by Fredk (Frederick) J Osborne, Salesman for Haas, Baruch & Co. (Grocers). He must have done well, because he could afford an avant guarde house and a domestic in the name of Ms. Kate E McGovern.

17. Raymond House, 1907
1610 27th St
Blaisdell and Weiss Tract
To see this house as it should be, it takes a little imagination. Picture all the stucco removed, with natural shingles. It could be a gorgeous home, with a bit of elbow grease. According to the 1915 City Directory it was the home of Stephen S and Ruth Raymond. Mr. Raymond was a manager at the Fairfield Oil Co. I would guess the street name is merely coincidental.

18. Van Buren Historic District
National Register of Historic Places No. 89001103, 1989.
The gates are new. (An attempt to stave off urban blight). The street scape looks much like it would have when the neighborhood was new, which is one reason why it’s deserving of it’s National Register status. Most of the houses were built by the Los Angeles Building Company. Although most were built to the original owner’s specifications, some were built on speculation, which was typical in Los Angeles at the time.

19. The Furlong House, 1910, Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument No. 678.
2657 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
Frank M. Tyler
Gracing the corner of 27th and Van Buren Place is the Furlong House, designed in the local vernacular, a transitional Victorian/Craftsman style, by prolific architect Frank M Tyler. The house is named for the second or third owner, Thomas J Furlong, who was the city clerk and treasurer for the city of Vernon, until the 1950’s. According to the 1915 city directory the home’s occupants were Shelly W and Bella Keiser, and were believed to live here 1910 to 1921. Mr. Keiser was in real estate and loans.

20. Bowen House, 1907
2651 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
This straight-forward Craftsman sports clean lines and an a-symmetric facade. The windows are unfortunate, but it’s in great condition otherwise. The home was built for William Alvin and Grace D Bowen. Mr. Bowen was a successful attorney at Gray Barker and Bowen.

21. Minton House, 1904
2645 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
One of the largest houses on the street, the facade of this Chalet-like Craftsman is imposing and strong. The bay window and dropping roof line help break up what otherwise could be a big box. The peaked window on the south side is charming. Clarence H Minton, Real Estate, is listed here in the 1905 City Directory.

22. Percy H. Clark House, 1903, Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument No. 672.
2633 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
As a major developer in Los Angeles, and specifically the developer of this tract on Van Buren Pl, you’d assume the Clark House would be the largest, but it’s not. Instead this craftsman is sedate, with strong clean lines. The front box window is especially unusual. Mr. Clark, not to be confused with the many other Clarks along West Adams Boulevard, was a giant of the early Los Angeles real estate community.

23. Long House, 1904
2633 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
Oath Long is listed in the 1904 City Directory as the resident of this lovely Craftsman house. It’s hipped roof is unusual for a style that favored open gables. The only gable appears directly above the entrance.

24. Hutchason-Cheap House, 1904
2627 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
Ribbed siding, rather than shingles, the shape and size, and the charming front window make this Victorian/Craftsman house appear more Victorian than Craftsman. Small windows tucked up under the eaves in various places give it a whimsical touch. According to the 1905 City Directory this was the home of Dr. And Mrs. Willis E Hutchason, Mr. Hutchason being a dentist. Later, in the 1920’s and 30’s it was the home Albert and Alice Cheep (and 8 children), according to the 1935 Blue Book. In between, the 1909 City Directory a lists Mrs. Blanch Trimble.

25. Lane House, 1904
2621 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
The front bay window and a-symmetrical gable over the door provide a focal point for this well-crafted Craftsman house. It was the home of J. Lansing and Linda H Lane in the 1904 City Directory.

26. Daniels House, 1903
2624 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
Somewhere under the unfortunate Sear’s siding is a stately late Victorian, transitional Craftsman, with Colonial touches, ready to blossom. The portico, with strong columns, was built to impress. In the 1904 City Directory Dr. And Jrs. Jared W Daniels were the residents.

27. Guthery House, 1906
2638 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
Charlotte Guthery was the owner of this beautiful transitional Victorian/Craftsman 2-1/2 story house, which recalls what was called in Los Angeles at the time as the Elizabethan Style. The widows weep was closed in with windows early on, but otherwise it’s picture perfect.

28. Greenbaum House, 1906
2638 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
Textiles appeared to have been profitable in early Los Angeles, as Abraham Greenbaum, a salesman for the Harris and Frank Clothing Store, was able to afford this luxurious Craftsman. Later, in the 1909 City Directory, Simon S. Spier, Millinery, is listed.

29. Leeds House, 1903
2642 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
Nestled in among the trees (and hard to photograph) is the lovely transitional Victorian/Craftsman owned by W. R. And Anna F. Leeds from 1903 to 1909. Mr. Leeds was an attorney. From 1909 to the 1920’s George D. And Elizabeth R. Cadwalader made I their home. Mr. Cadwalader was involved with the general machinery at the Los Angeles Brick Co.

30. Corelyou House 1905
2650 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
George A. Corelyou was in real estate. The home is mostly Craftsman, with just a few transitional hold overs, and in fine shape, except for the unfortunate window replacements. The front door and sidelights are it’s most attractive and unusual feature.

31. McKinney House, 1906
2656 Van Buren Pl
West Adams Street Tract
This was one of the houses built on speculation by the Los Angeles Building Company. The architect is unknown, but more than likely it was designed by someone like Frank M. Tyler, by Tyler and Company, which built many houses on spec. It’s a charming and well-planned transitional Victorian/Craftsman home. The half-timbering lean toward a Tudor or Elizabethan Style.

Posted by Kansas Sebastian on 2013-04-28 00:33:18

Tagged: , Kansas Sebastian , Los Angeles , California , Historic West Adams , WAHA , Adams-Normandie Historic Preservation Overlay Zone , HPOZ , Historic Houses , Historic Neighborhoods , Architecture

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