amazing Small House Ideas Pratt Institute Faculty Rowhouses

Pratt Institute Faculty Rowhouses

Clinton Hill, Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United StatesThe Pratt Institute Faculty Rowhouses are a cluster of 27 dwellings located at 220-234 Willoughby Avenue, 171-185 Steuben Street, and 172-186 Emerson Place. Built in 1907, they were designed in a Colonial Revival style by architect Hobart A. Walker. The houses, situated at the northeast corner of the Pratt Institute campus,, were commissioned by the institute to meet its expanding needs.Pratt Institute was founded by Charles Pratt for the training of artisans, foremen, designers, draftsmen, and other technicians. The school was an outgrowth of Pratt’s interest in manual training and his belief that the best way to help others was to teach them how to help themselves. The type of technical training established at Pratt was unprecedented in the United States at that time.Charles Pratt was born in Watertown, Massachusetts. In 1851 he moved to New York City and worked for the firm of Schenck & Downing, dealers in paints and oils. He joined the firm of Reynolds, Devoe & Pratt, which manufactured and sold pdint and related products in 1854. In 1867, Pratt established the firm of Charles Pratt & Co. with the intention of marketing a less flamable kerosene for lighting, one that would have a flashpoint of more than 100 degrees F. "Pratt’s Astral Oil" gained a worldwide reputation, and the firm began to manufacture tools, cans, petroleum barrels, and similar products. The Pratt Manufacturing Co. was founded to produce sulphuric acids and other chemicals used in petroleum refining. Pratt’s business interests were acquired by John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil in 1874. At that time Pratt’s refineries had a capacity of 1500 barrels of oil a day and were regarded as the most sucessful in the country. Pratt remained with the company and quickly became a major force at Standard Oil.Pratt, whose philanthropic interests were wide ranging, not only founded the Pratt Institute and its Free Library but also endowed the Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn, Amherst College, and the University of Rochester* He built the Astral Apartments, a model tenement development in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, near his oil refineries, and gave $100,000 towards the construction of Clinton Hill’s Emmanuel Baptist Church, a designated New York City Landmark. Pratt had moved into the Clinton Hill area in the 1870s, building his large mansion at 252 Clinton Avenue in 1875. He also bestowed houses in the neighborhood as wedding presents for his sons, and all were built on Clinton Avenue after Charles Pratt’s death in 1891.Pratt Institute opened on October 17, 1887, with a drawing class of twelve students. From these modest beginnings, the school rapidly expanded its departments, facilities and student body. Consequently, it was logical that the school should wish to provide residential accommodations for its staff on a site convenient to the campus, on land which Pratt Institute had purchased some fifteen years earlier. The commission for the houses was given to Hobart A. Walker.Walker, a specialist in residential design, began his architectural practice in 1895. Other known commissions are the late Romanesque Revival carriage house for J. Henry Alexandre at 173 East 73rd Street, Manhattan; the Colonial Revival Ralph H. Wilson residence at 162 Argyle Road in the Prospect Park South Historic District in Brooklyn; and the neo-Jacobean William H. Burger residence at 443 Clinton Avenue in the Clinton Hill Historic District in Brooklyn. Walker’s choice of a Colonial Revival style for the Pratt rowhouses is both characteristic of his work and reflects the popular taste in residential architecture of the period. While more commonly used in freestanding houses, here the style is used to successful effect in a rowhouse design.The 27 rowhouses are clustered in three groups with the fronts of the houses facing the streets and the rears facing a center garden divided by two alleyways, Each house has a small front yard enclosed by an iron fence. Each row of two-and-one-half-story red brick houses has two alternating house types, one with a peaked stuccoed gable, the other with a stepped gable. Paired stoops lined by railings lead to entrances with paneled double doors.Above the doors are windows with diamond-paned sash set below dentil courses and stone lintels. Adjacent to each entrance is a two story, three-sided window bay. Square panels are placed below the windows. The sash at the second floor level are diamond paned, and the bay is surmounted by a dentil course and molding. The use of such sash and window bays is characteristic of the Colonial Revival style. At the attic story the gables are set in front of sloping roofs. .The stuccoed, peaked gables have paired windows outlined by wood framing. The stepped gables have paired windows set below common arched tympana with foliate panels. Such stepped gables are based on Dutch Colonial sources, and their use adds an especially picturesque note to the design. The side walls of the end houses in the rows are pierced by rectangular window openings which have diamond-paned sash at the second floor. The walls terminate in stepped parapets, echoing the form of the front gables, at the roofline. The rears of the houses are visible from the alleyways. Each has a small brick-faced two-story win)’, with a small entrance vestibule.This picturesque group of houses is an excellent example of Colonial Revival design as adapted to rowhouse architecture. Designed by Hobart A. Walker, the houses are characteristic of his residential work. Built by the Pratt Institute to serve its expanding needs, the houses are still an important element of the Pratt Campus.– From the 1981 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Posted by Emilio Guerra on 2012-12-29 13:25:14

Tagged: , 0.38 Km to Clinton Hill in New York United States , Clinton Hill , geotagged , New York , United States , Estados Unidos , New York City , New York City, NY , New York, NY , Nueva York , Nueva York, EE.UU. , Nueva York, Estados Unidos , NY , NYC , United States of America , USA , November 18, 2012 , November 18, 2012 walk , Paseo del 18 de noviembre de 2012 , 18 de noviembre de 2012 , 18-XI-2012 , 11/18/2012 , Brooklyn , Borough of Brooklyn , Kings County , Pratt Institute Faculty Rowhouses , LP-2012 , Landmark , New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission , NYCLPC , 2012 , 2012 walk , EE.UU. , November 18

amazing Small House Plan Bordertown. Bordertown Masonic Lodge. Lodge founded 1911 and this temple opened in 1926. Closed in 2008 and sold in 2011.

Bordertown. Bordertown Masonic Lodge. Lodge founded 1911 and this temple opened in 1926. Closed in 2008 and sold in 2011.

Bordertown: regional capital.
Unlike Mundulla, Bordertown was surveyed as part of the Gold Escort Route and not in response to the declaration of the Tatiara Agricultural selection area in 1872. Bordertown was surveyed in 1852 after discussion between the Surveyor–General and Inspector Tolmer of the Gold Escort service. They chose a site near a well, on the banks of Tatiara Creek and on Cannawigara Station close to Mr Scott’ woolshed. Importantly they wanted a town site near the Victorian border. They surveyed a grid town with North, South, East and West terraces and streets named after local pastoralists- McLeod, Binnie, Scott and Woolshed after Scott’s woolshed! The town was to be a half way depot for the Gold Escort service. Of the 104 town lots offered for sale only 10 sold and they were to Mr Scott and two speculators. More sold later but no one bought land to develop or use. In 1854 two police officers were stationed at Bordertown and a small police station was built and a police paddock for their horses etc established. They were the only residents in Bordertown. In 1856 a store keeper arrived and opened a store in the town and the first house was built. Then in 1859 a block was purchased for a hotel, the Woolshed Inn and the first hotel licensed. Later in 1865 the publican took over the store as well. The population of Bordertown was not growing! A new police station was built in 1863 and in 1867 a local committee erected a small wooden school room. The town had a few residents only but the surrounding stations had more. This was the situation in Bordertown when the Tatiara Agricultural Area was declared in 1872. As so little development had occurred in the town a new town was surveyed and designed. The new town surveyed in 1871 had a surrounding parkland belt and suburban blocks of land beyond that. With time the suburban blocks were all converted into ¼ acre residential plots.

But one other resident of the district needs mentioning. In 1859 the owners of the main local stations Cannawigara, Wirrega, Nalang and Padthaway got together and decided they needed the services of a doctor and that they would encourage Dr Penny to take up residence in or near Bordertown. Dr Penny had practised in Robe since 1851 and the station owners offered him a fixed annual income to move to Bordertown. Dr Penny chose a site outside of the town, nearer to Mundulla for his home site which he called Charla. A block of land was taken from Binnie’s Wirrega station. Penny started building a substantial stone home in 1861 which was not completed until 1865. Behind the stone house was a wooden slab kitchen. Dr Penny had 40 acres of gardens and stabling for his horses around the house. With such improvements Dr Penny wanted the freehold for his land. Special permission had to be obtained for a survey not within one of the hundreds. In 1865 George Goyder authorised and conducted the survey himself of a 38 acre block for Dr Penny. It became section one of the Hundred of Tatiara in later years. Dr Penny practised from Charla until his death in 1887. The Penny’s had purchased freehold selector lands in the 1870s and his family remained at Charla and on this property until 1968.

Once the farmers moved into the Hundred of Tatiara and the rural population increased so did the township of Bordertown as a major service centre. The town grew slowly but surely until the 1950s when it was boosted further with the AMP development of lands near Keith and the introduction of trace elements to make the lands north of Bordertown productive pastoral country. The 1950s were also boom years for both wool and wheat prices and farmer prosperity resulted in town growth and prosperity. Unfortunately it was also the time when so many early buildings were demolished and replaced with 1960s style structures. Today Bordertown has a population of 2,500 and many functions of a regional centre such as saleyards, stock agents, state government offices, regional hospital and nursing home, high school, local abattoir, engineering works, fuel depots etc.

Bordertown Historical Walk.
Bordertown railway station. The rail yards were hives of activity in the early years with wheat stores, two rail gauges, railway dam, interstate and local trains and stock yards run by the major stock and station agents such as Elder Smith and Company. The first railway station for passengers was erected in 1883 but without a platform. This burnt down in a fire in 1889 and a wooden replacement station, with platform opened in 1890. In turn this was replaced by a fine Art Nouveau American design stone railway station in 1914.
Eudunda Farmers Cooperative Store. This group opened a general store in 1936 as their 39 ninth store in SA. They opened in an 1880s store which they remodelled in 1940. The store was further altered in 1955 and completely revamped in 1987. In 1989 the Eudunda Farmers store moved to another location in the town and became the Foodland store and it still operates as an IGA supermarket.
Bordertown Hotel. It was licensed early in 1869 in the western part of Bordertown but the business struggled in the late 19th century. Finally the hotel closed in 1893. Owners tried to get it relicensed for several years and were not successful until 1898. They then purchased a new site near the railway station for ease of access by travellers and a brand new two storey hotel opened in 1903. Its exterior is largely unaltered from that time.

1. Child Care Centre/Kindergarten/Hospital.
Like most country towns Bordertown had several private hospitals, usually run by local nurses before the government hospital opened in 1924 as the Tatiara Soldiers Memorial Hospital. It was enlarged in 1926/27 to increase the size to over 30 beds. In 1967 a new hospital was built with more than 42 beds. A two storey nurse’s home was constructed adjoining the hospital in 1972. It is now the Charla Nursing Home, named after the home of the district’s first Doctor, Dr Robert Penny. After World War Two many SA communities wanted to adopt the relatively new trend of having a town kindergarten for pre-school age children. After lots of local fund raising Bordertown opened a kindergarten in 1955 on the corner of Patterson Street. It is now the Child Care Centre.

2. Lutheran Church.
Lutheran church services began in Lutheran homes, conducted by the Lutheran minister from Dimboola in Victoria, in the early 1930s. A Lutheran minister was stationed in Bordertown from 1939 but no church was built at that time. A second Lutheran synod also began regular Lutheran services in Bordertown from the late 1930s. At one stage Lutheran services were held in the Methodist Church. In 1950 both congregations met and decided to build a joint church for both synods and this was completed in 1953. Separate Lutheran services were held in the one church until formal amalgamation of the two synods in 1965 and the formation of Trinity Lutheran church in 1967. The church was too small for the combined congregations and so the 1953 church was demolished and replaced with a grand new church in 1985.

3. Anglican Church.
Anglican services began in 1880 in Bordertown but the first church was not opened until 1887. A fine stone rectory was erected next to the church in 1907. A vestry was added in 1925 and a stone hall in 1961. Surprisingly the church was not consecrated until a visit by the Anglican bishop in 1936. It is unusual in that the entrance is now at the rear of the church.

4. Methodist/Uniting Church.
Wesleyan Methodist services began in Bordertown around 1882 but a church was not built until 1887. An adjoining parsonage was built in 1897 but it has since been demolished and replaced (1961.) A new church hall was opened in 1963 and the old church has been much altered.

5. Masonic Lodge/Temple.
This strange looking building in DeCourcey Street began as the Masonic Lodge. It was opened in 1926 after being built by one of the local members. The Lodge was formed in Bordertown in 1911 and it met for years in the Institute building. Note the pillar and curved brick entrance. By 1926 the Lodge had obviously decided it was allowed to have windows facing the street. It had a large hall about 50 feet by 30 feet and a couple of meeting and supper rooms. It closed in 2008 and was sold in 2011. Note the symmetry of the façade; strong brick quoins and bricks across the roof line to give two identical almost square sections beside the entrance. It is an interesting structure.

6. Churches of Christ.
The first home services of the churches of Christ started in the Tatiara in 1882 with the origins of their building fund going back to 1890. A church opened at Carew in the Tatiara in 1899. The first Bordertown church opened in 1905, built by church members and a fine manse was completed in 1912. In 1953 a second church was built on their town land. This 1953 church is now used as a hall. The old 1905 church was demolished in 1963 and a new church of red brick replaced it in 1965. It still serves the Churches of Christ community in Bordertown.

7. Former Congregational Church.
The Congregational Church was erected 1880; the porch was added in 1924, and the hall was erected 1926. In 1966 a porch was added to link the church and the hall. Reverend David Milne was the first minister in this region. He visited Bordertown in 1862 and held the first services in the Woolshed Inn. He lived in Kingston with his second wife with whom he had seven children to complement the four from his first marriage. He travelled regularly to the Bordertown district for many years until he moved here with his family in 1873 after the Tatiara Agricultural Area was declared. He then continued with services and pushed for the erection of a Congregational Church which took another seven years to accomplish. He also serviced the Congregational Church in Mundalla and in Cannawigara and other small settlements. He continued preaching and he undertook Congregational Missionary work until 1910 when he died aged 83 years. The Congregational church closed when it amalgamated with the Methodist church to form the Uniting Church in Bordertown in 1971. It is now leased by the Naracoorte funeral parlour.

8. Old School Room.
Bordertown Old Primary School. The local wooden school room opened in 1867 only to be replaced with a stone room in 1874. The Education Department added another couple of rooms to create a T shaped school in 1884 as the school enrolments rose once the farmers arrived in the Tatiara. When the government started up the first country high schools Bordertown was one of the first when it opened in 1913 in the original 1874 classroom. The first teacher in charge was a woman but the high school closed in 1916 because of World War One. Few boys were left in the school as these younger ones had to work full time on the family farms as older boys had gone to war. High school classes resumed in Bordertown in 1920 and two new classrooms were added to the school for their use in 1921. The revamped high school became a Higher Primary School in 1922. From 1939 the Higher Primary classes occupied the 1884 classrooms as well as the 1921 rooms. In 1959 the government made the decision to separate the primary and high schools and the primary school moved to a new school site in 1971. The old school complex is used as club rooms for several town organisations.

9. Old Catholic Church.
Bordertown was added to the Catholic parish of Penola from its first surveying in 1852. After the 1872 farm selection act the parish priests from Penola visited more often. Catholic services in Bordertown began at the Woolshed Inn in 1881. A foundation stone for a Catholic Church was laid in 1883 and opened in 1884. This impressive church still stands albeit as a private residence. The limestone walls are an impressive 22 inches thick. The first resident priest for Bordertown arrived in 1939.

10. New Catholic Church.
When the first priest arrived in 1939 he purchased five acres of land for a Catholic School which was eventually built. The priest worked on building his own presbytery and it was completed in 1954 next to the church. A new St. Mary’s Catholic Church as opened in 1969. The old church was used as a hall for some time.

11. Council Offices.
The original Council Chamber for the district was in Mundulla. It closed in 1904 when the stone and brick chamber opened in Bordertown. This fine old building was demolished in 1959 when the new Council Offices were opened. A further two storey structure was added in 1978. Outside of the Council Offices is a bust of Prime Minister Robert Hawke donated in 1987 and unveiled by Bob Hawke’s father who returned to the town in which he had formerly served. In the foyer of the Council Offices is a painting of Hawke in the Hawke Gallery. The Council has an art gallery.
12. Old Institute and current Library.
Bordertown Institute. A local committee was formed and after several years of discussions and fund raising an institute was opened in 1878. Prior to this the library facility had been located in the 1867 school classroom until the Education Department took over that school and wanted to charge high rents for the library room. The Institute was increased in size and a new façade and new front rooms in the classical style with a grand pediment were added in 1909. The Premier of the day Mr Peake opened the new Institute. Yet another new institute hall was opened in 1960 again with the opening ceremony by the Premier of the day who was Sir Thomas Playford on that occasion. The extensions included a new town library. Many organisations held their meetings here and it was also the location of many private and official town functions. A theatre was added to the Institute/Library complex in 1982.

13. Hawke House.
This building opened in 1888 as the first national Bank in Bordertown. In 1897 it was sold to the Congregational Church as a manse and much later Prime Minister Bob (or Robert) Hawke was born here in December 1929. Presumably he was conceived here too as Clement and Ella Hawkes occupied this manse in 1928. The Reverend Hawke left Bordertown in 1935 and Bob Hawke started school at Maitland Primary School on Yorke Peninsula. The Hawkes left Maitland in 1939 and moved to Perth. Bob Hawke then undertook his secondary education at Perth Modern School before going on to the University of Western Australia. The school established in 1911 is a government school for academically gifted students. Hawke House is now owned by the Uniting Church and used as a welfare centre. Opposite Hawke House is the Apex Park which was originally designated as McLaren Place by the surveyor of the town in 1852 who was John McLaren. Look for the sculpture done by Bordertown High School students in 1999 and the mural done by Bordentown Primary School students in 1996. The mural on the Library wall was done by the High School students.

14. Woolshed Inn.
This was the first hotel licensed in Bordertown in 1859 and it was so named because it was close to John and Charles Scott’s woolshed for their Cannawigara station. In 1882 the early structures were added to with a new single storey hotel. As fashions and interests changed the Woolshed Inn became the Tatiara Hotel in 1927 but it reverted to the historic Woolshed Inn name in 1969. The original 1859 building with its 12 paned window can be seen in the yard of the current hotel.

15. Police/Information Centre/Tolmer Park.
This spot was originally the police paddock from 1854. Police have always been stationed on the corner. The toilets are called the Old Gaol but there was never a gaol, only a couple of cells in conjunction with the police station which was usual in any country towns. The Information Centre is here and inside you can see the front of the old police station built in 1930. The first police building was erected early in 1854- a mere shack. In 1863 the first proper police station costing £300 was built. In 1930 another new police station was built and the third station was put up in 1963. The old 1863 station was then demolished and the 1930 station was turned into a police residence. In 1983 the fourth police station was opened along the street. The old police paddock is now Tolmer Recreation Park. It was fenced in 1857 to stop the troopers’ horses from straying. The last Gold Escort service left here in December 1853. The police were then on their own with little to do. Look for the white kangaroos which have been bred from a single white male obtained in 1980 on the road towards Melbourne and read the information boards around Tolmer Park.

Posted by denisbin on 2013-11-01 05:25:48

Tagged: , Bordertown , Tatiara , Masons , Masonic , Masoninc Temple , Masonic Lodge

amazing Small House Ideas LaTour House, Lynchburg, Va 2

LaTour House, Lynchburg, Va 2

[There are 4 images in this set on the La Tour House] This is a creative commons image, which you may freely use by linking to this page. Please respect the photographer and his work.

The Louis LaTour House, built in 1898, was designed by local Lynchburg, Virginia architect Edward G. Frye in a Queen Anne style. It’s a 2 1/2 story brick structure with hipped and gable roofs; the hipped roof section has a central dormer with three windows, corbelled brick and detail work in terra cotta. The front gable also has corbelled brick work and detailing in terra cotta, including the hood moldings. An open arched bay is visible on the second story; terra cotta is used ornately in this bay. The wooden porch is relatively small with a flat roof; below roof line is a metal entablature that is decorated. The roof is supported on pairs of turned columns and it has turned balusters. The central entrance is a pair of wooden doors with a 1-pane transom. The doors have raised panels and a decorated hood above the window lights that seems Neo-classical. Even though the windows positions on first and second floors correspond, the open 2nd level bay, the gable and the roofline give the building its asymmetrical appearance. The house is listed in the Court House Hill-Downtown Historic District, which was added to the National Register of Historic Places September 11, 2002 with ID#01000853; a boundary increase was added in November of 2002 with ID#02001361

A photograph of the house before renovation is on the Library of Congress website lcweb2.loc.gov/pnp/habshaer/va/va1100/va1158/photos/16014…

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Posted by David Hoffman ’41 on 2012-12-30 16:46:51

Tagged: , architecture , house , home , residence , structure , building , 1898 , Edward G. Frye , Queen Anne , brick , hipped , gable , roof , dormer , windows , corbelled , corbelling , detailing , Terra cotta , decoration , ornamentation , adornment , embellishement , arched , bay , hood , molding , porch , wood , entablature , metal , turned , columns , balusters , doors , raised , panels , transom , Neoclassical , roofline , asymmetrical , Court House Hill-Downtown Historic District , NRHP , National Register of Historic Places , Lynchburg , Virginia

amazing Small House Design William Powell & Sons – Gun & Rifle Makers – Carrs Lane

William Powell & Sons - Gun & Rifle Makers - Carrs Lane

This is a former gun and rifle makers – gun shop and workshop on Carrs Lane.

It is a Grade II listed building.

Gun shop, workshops and living accomodation [now offices] of 1861, designed by Charles Edge [f.1827-1867].

MATERIALS: Red brick with diapered patterns in black brick and painted stone dressings.
PLAN: The street frontage is three storeys with attic and the rear, L-shaped workshop range has five floors.

EXTERIOR: The street front is rendered to the ground floor and first floor levels. The ground floor has three doorways at centre, right and left and between them are set shop windows. All of the openings have four-centred arches with deeply-incised hood moulds and label stops. The lower part of the shop windows are of C20 plate glass with modern fascia boards above, but the upper portions of the windows retain their two-light tracery and the surrounds are untouched. The left doorway has been converted to form a shop window and that to right leads to the staircase of the office chambers on the upper floors above the shops. The five first floor windows alternate between single and double-lights and have moulded surrounds and arched tympana beneath the black and red brick voussoirs. The piers between the windows have been encased in wooden panels. The four second floor windows are paired and have projecting figureheads to their tympana. Those to the third floor are sashes. A heavy cornice supports two gabled dormers with crow-stepped profile and polychromatic voussoirs to the relieving arches. The rear L-shaped workshop wing is of diapered brickwork with large windows above the work benches.

INTERIOR: The former central corridor which led to the rear courtyard has been incorporated and now forms a central arcaded colonnade, entered by the central door, to either side of which the shop interior can be reached. This has been largely re-fitted with replacement panelling to the walls and a suspended ceiling to the rear room at right. The offices are approached by an open-well staircase with stick balusters and shaped tread-ends. These upper floors retain their plan form relatively unaltered with two principal front rooms to each, although fireplaces have been removed. The architects drawings show these marked as drawing room etc. to first floor with bedrooms to the upper floors. The workshop wing at the back has ranges of large windows facing east and south and below these are work benches. There is a small forge to one room at first floor level.

HISTORY: The gun making industry in Birmingham was started in the C17 and expanded steadily through to the start of the C20. Firearms for the East India company and for slave traders were made in large numbers and guns for the army were a staple of the industry and led to the founding of the Government Viewing Room in 1798 and one of the two Proof Houses in the country for authorising guns. Powell’s trace their history to the partnership between William Powell and Joseph Simmons established in 1802 and were amongst the most prominent of the C19 gun makers. William Powell was elected Chairman of the Guardians of the Proof House where he also engaged Charles Edge to design the Proof Hole [proofing shed]. The firm made guns for the Napoleonic wars and for the American Civil War. They patented a number of inventions, including, in 1864, the Powell Snap Action and in 1866 a half-cocking mechanism.From 1861 William Powell gave his address as Carrs Lane, which implies that the acomodation was for his use. Gun-makers" did not usually manufacture the individual parts of their guns. Pieces were made by independent specialist sub-contractors. Some of these worked within the gun quarter and Showell’s Dictionary lists some fifty specialists. Assembly was done by "fabricators" or "setters-up" and the finished product was then sold by the "maker". It seems from the juxtaposition of shop and workshop at Carrs Lane that Powell’s assembled the guns themselves and then sold them through the shop, enabling them to better monitor the quality of the finished product.

SOURCES: Thomas T. Harman and Walter Showell, Showell’s Dictionary of Birmingham (1885); Andy Foster, Birmingham, Pevsner Architectural Guides (2005).

SUMMARY OF IMPORTANCE: This building was designed in 1860 by the noted Birmingham architect, Charles Edge, whose other listed buildings include the extension to Birmingham Town Hall [Grade I]. It houses a gun shop and associated workshops as well as accomodation [now office chambers] on the upper floors. The building has a good street front in a continental Gothic style which is little-altered, and a shop interior and accomodation which retain the essentials of their plan form. The juxtaposition of gun shop and associated workshops, where the parts made elsewhere were assembled, or "set-up" is rare and the degree of intactness in the workshop wing, with work benches and hearth still in situ, is remarkable. The building provides telling evidence of the specialist gun trade which was once such a vital part of Birmingham’s industry in the C19.

Powell’s Gun Shop – Heritage Gateway

Powell’s Gun Shop dates from 1860 – 61, a late work of Charles Edge in Italian Gothic. Four storeys and dormers, rendered below red brick with blue brick patterns above, stone dressings. The ground floor originally two shops with a central rear access, has four-centred arches. Above the window arrangement narrows on each suceeding floor, creating upward movement. Many sculpted heads. The first floor projections are recent. At the rear a narrow five-storey contemporary workshop wing.

From "Pevsner Architectural Guides: Birmingham" by Andy Foster

Posted by ell brown on 2009-12-29 20:44:42

Tagged: , moor st queensway , carrs lane , carrs ln , birmingham , west midlands , england , united kingdom , great britain , wm powell & sons gun & rifle makers , grade ii listed , Grade II listed building , william powell & son (gunmakers) ltd , powell’s gun shop , gun shop , workshop , living accomodation , charles edge , red brick , diapered patterns in black brick , painted stone dressings , four-centred arches , deeply-incised hood moulds , moulded surrounds , arched tympana , black and red brick voussoirs , modern fascia boards , tympana , cornice , gabled dormers , crow-stepped profile , polychromatic voussoirs , relieving arches , diapered brickwork , william powell , joseph simmons , gun makers , proof house , chairman of the guardians of the proof house , powell snap action , half-cocking mechanism , powell’s , italian gothic , dormers , blue brick patterns , stone dressings

amazing Small House Ideas Morris Avenue

Morris Avenue

Morris Avenue Historic District, Morris Avenue, Mount Hope, Bronx, New York City, United States

The block of Morris Avenue between Tremont Avenue and East 179th Street in the Bronx, constructed between 1906 and 1910 by the speculative builder August Jacob to the designs of architect John Hauser, is a notable example of a uniformly planned streetscape. The resulting architectural homogeneity is rare in any urban situation. While the houses appear to take the form of the standard single-family rowhouse found throughout the urbanized sections of Manhattan and Brooklyn in the 19th century, these are in fact two-family dwellings. They are significant as examples of how law can effect design. Hauser’s response to proposed changes in the building law is responsible for the three-story elevations of the houses on Morris Avenue and the unique interior arrangement behind them. Jacob’s land acquisitions and the subsequent building history here reflect the Bronx’s early urban development.

Bronx Development

This block of Morris Avenue, in the 17th century, had been but a minuscule and uncharted portion of the 3200 acre Manor of Fordham, the only Westchester County manor to be granted by Royal Charter, that of James, Duke of York, to John Archer, the first lord. In retrospect the manor’s final dissolution in 1764 — sold in tracts by the Dutch Reformed Church — has been called the largest sale of real estate in the history of the Bronx. By mid-19th century this block was still a small part of a larger property owned by Thomas W. Ludlow, described as located at Fordham in the Town of West Farms. In 1846 Westchester was divided; east of the Bronx River remained part of Westchester County, but the area between the Bronx and Harlem Rivers became West Farms. In 1874 West Farms was annexed to the City of New York as the 24th Ward. Four years later Ludlow sold his holdings in four parcels, or sub-divisions, an area roughly approximated today by the Grand Concourse on the east, East Tremont on the south, University Avenue on the west, and Bumside Avenue on the north.

In 1889 three of these subdivisions were reunited and within a matter of months were sold together to one Augustus Kountze, who bought more property in the neighborhood a year later. Kountze died in 1894, leaving his widow Catherine and their children to consolidate most of the inherited holdings into ownership by a single entity of which the son, Herman Kountze, was president—the United Real Estate and Trust Company incorporated in the State of Nebraska and located in Omaha. Herman himself, and his brothers, Luther and Charles B. of Denver, joined their mother as trustees. As a consequence of their distant domiciles, legal transactions involving their Bronx property required a battery of notaries. The property increased in value in the seventeen years of their stewardship; in 1901 179th Street was opened from Jerome Avenue to Anthony Avenue; in 1904 Morris Avenue was opened from Tremont Avenue to Parkview Terrace. By 1906 Morris Avenue had been given its full length.

The urban development of the Bronx gained momentum after the introduction of the Interborough Rapid Transit in 1904. Although the area had been served by the Harlem and Hudson River Railroad for several decades already, the factor of public transportation was still a major one in the area’s, transition from rural and suburban to .urban. . The IRT extended under nearby Jerome Avenue. In 1907, it was announced a trolley line would be

laid along Tremont Avenue

Convenient transportation encouraged residents of the more densely populated borough of Manhattan to seek more spacious accommodations in the Bronx. Real-estate speculators and builders were ready; indeed, it appears they were more than ready. The anticipated influx from Manhattan, though significant, didn’t fill all of the brand new space available, especially the new tenements. Despite the cheaper rents and promotional headlines like "Flat hunting in the Bronx is now a seasonable pastime/Every taste can be suited," ^ many new tenements were still empty and loan companies refused to back further tenement construction. Manhattan tenement residents who did not have sufficient means to buy a single-family house were looking for a less congested environment. Realizing this, developers then turned their attention to building two-family dwellings. This block of Morris Avenue is a response to such trends.

The Builder and the Architect

At present little is known of August Jacob, the developer and builder of this block of Morris Avenue. Nor is it known if this was his first effort. When he began the Morris Avenue project, Jacob resided at 527 West 149th Street. He was married; his wife’s name, Philipina C. Jacob, appears on the deeds conveying each of the new houses on Morris Avenue to its new owners. Jacob’s frequent associate, George H. Jacob, is somewhat of a mystery as well. Based on the scant evidence which deeds and conveyances offer, it is posited that George Jacob was either August’s brother or his son. Slim evidence points to the latter. At the time this block was developed, George was unmarried and living at the same address as the August Jacobs. Although the last six houses on the the east side of the street (extending to the corner of 179th Street) were erected on land bought by August but nominally George’s when building permits were applied for, each was sold by August and Philipina C. Jacob.

By 1910 George was secretary of the August Jacob Construction Company, formed to erect the two five-story tenement buildings flanking the Tremont entrance to the block, while August was president. Yet, after this block had been developed all three Jacobs bought and sold property independently in the block west, on 179th Street. The large size of their undertaking on Morris Avenue, the complexity of coordinating the several building campaigns, the timely manner in which they arranged loans for both land acquisition and building construction, and the speed in which they accomplished it all leads to the assumption that the Jacobs had some previous experience in real-estate development.

John Hauser had been designing single residences and tenement buildings, predominantly in northern Manhattan, for more than a decade when he began his collaboration with August Jacob in the Bronx in 1906. Indeed, that year saw the completion of the residential row at 453-475 West 141st Street, Manhattan, which he designed for the Picken Realty Company These twelve four-story rowhouses were built of brick and limestone in the "free classical" style. The alternating pattern of three-sided and curved bays is of interest in the context of his designs for August Jacob on Morris Avenue.

August Jacob’s initial purchase from the the United Real-Estate and Trust Company included three parcels: the whole eastern half of Tax Map

Block 2829 (i.e., the west side of Morris Avenue from Tremont Avenue to East 179th Street); the last five lots on the east side of Morris Avenue (Tax Map Block 2807, now the six lots numbered 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 96); and the first four and one half lots on the east side (lots 1, 90, 2, 3 and one half of 4 of Tax Map Block 2807). The first of the remaining seven and one half lots (half of lot 4 through lot 10 of Tax Map Block 2897) was bought from Catherine Kountze’s surviving trustees, dwindled down to only Luther and Charles B. Kountze. The other lots were also bought individually or in pairs throughout 1907.^ All of these, on both sides of the street, were covered by protective covenants enforceable until 1910, restricting what could and could not be constructed on them: no slaughter houses, smiths’ forges, furnaces, foundries, iron factories, breweries, distilleries, noxious or dangerous emissions, no building less than two stories, no building without a cellar except barns and outhouses, and no bams within sixty feet of the street.

Building History

Despite its common authorship and for all its apparent homogeneity, this block of Morris Avenue has a rather disjointed building history. Differences among the groups of houses best identify the five building campaigns which Jacob and Hauser undertook, sometimes overlapping, sometimes simultaneously, within the short four-year time span in which both sides of the street were developed.

The reasons for these differences are very basic. The property records demonstrate that Jacob could not acquire the land all at once. Consistently, from the same two mortgagors, he had to secure loans from one to buy the sites and from the other to build the houses. What with preparations like the probable demolition of a few existing structures, grading and excavating, he was unable to launch a single building campaign. Jacob purchased the three initial parcels in 1906, the remainder on the east side of the street throughout 1907. The first building campaign, from June 20, 1906 to January 1, 1907,? occurred on the last six lots on the west side of the street, now occupied by Nos. 1989 through 1999 (plate 1), and the adjacent lot, containing No. 60 East 179th Street (plate 2). The six, all abutting, were articulated as three buildings, as if Hauser’s major concern at the outset was to differentiate between the houses, rather than to create uniform rows.

This appears to have been his intention when designing the row on West 141st Street in Manhattan for the Picken Realty Company. The alternating bays on West 141st Street are immediate predecessors of these six on Morris Avenue, which are two stories high set on high English basements. Here pairs with curved bows flank a pair with angled bays. Stoop and areaway railings are uniform in decorative pattern.

The second campaign, which began two months after the first, August 21, 1906, comprised the last six houses on the east side of Morris, Nos. 1988 through 1998, directly across the street from the first group, and a seventh, No. 108 East 179 Street (plates 3 and 4).^ Like those of the first campaign, these houses were designed as two-family dwellings. Like the first campaign, pairs of dwellings alternate brick shades, red and buff. But the overall design is different; this was the first group to be a full three stories. Stoop and areaway railings are uniform though a different pattern from those across the ‘street." " — –

The third campaign, the construction of Nos. 1970 through 1986, appears to have been started late in 1906 or early 1907 (plate 5). The earliest house sold was No. 1986, on October 27, 1907. This group of nine three-story houses is characterized by the greatest variety of brick shades, buff, dark honey and burnt orange. The wrought-iron stoop railings are similar to those of Nos. 1988 to 1998 and 108 East 179th Street, but the areaway railings are, again, a different pattern.

Nos. 1971 through 1987, the row of nine houses on the west side of Morris (plate 6), were constructed in a fourth campaign about mid-1907 — the earliest house in this group was sold on September 30, 1908. All of these houses have three stories, and there is no variation in color; they are all buff brick. However, stoop and areaway railings are yet a different pattern.

The two tenement buildings on Tremont (plates 7 and 8) and one house. No. 1968 Morris Avenue (plate 9), comprise the Jacobs’ fifth and final building campaign. The plans for these three were all approved on January 27, 1909. However, No. 1968 was begun on April 1, while the tenements were begun four months later, on August 12. No. 1968 was finished on January 31, 1910, and the tenements were sold about two months later, on April 4. The wrought-iron sidewalk railings are chest height.

Evolution of the Design

Two major questions, unanswered in the buildings’ history, remain. The first is why Hauser introduced a new design two months after his initial designs for the group of houses. The second, not unrelated to the first, is why Hauser shifted his earlier emphasis upon variety in facade design towards a greater homogeneity. Explanation of the rest of the inconsistencies and differences may depend on the resolution of these two questions.

August Jacob’s earliest purchase of land on Morris Avenue, the west side of the street between Tremont and East 179th Street and the two separate parcels on the east side, suggests that, from the start, he intended to develop both sides of this block as a whole. But Hauser did not repeat his designs for the first group of houses in the succeeding building campaigns. The two-story dwellings on their high English basements were superceded by three-story houses. Yet both designs were for two-family houses. In the first group there was a floor for each family, and the family on the first floor also had use of the high basement. The slightly later three-story houses contained two units also; a duplex apartment with connecting interior staircase on the first and second stories, and the second apartment on the third story. No doubt, the three- story houses with their duplexes were an attractive alternative to two- family housing elsewhere. But might not some circumstance external to the design process have prompted this unconventional arrangement? Why this sudden generosity?

There was at this time (1906-07) a bill introduced before the New York State legislature to amend the Tenement House Law to exempt three-family dwellings. Proposed by builders predominantly active in the Bronx and called the Sheridan Bill, it was sponsored by Bronx Assemblyman Sheridan of the 39th Assembly District. Contemporary newspapers carried accounts of this effort daily. Proponents posited that land values in some sections were too high to build two-family houses profitably. They reasoned that three-family houses would attract the same class of tenant who was seeking single or two-family accommodation and that tenants would be willing to pay more for this semi-privacy than they would for comparable space in a tenement building. Although not often mentioned but basic to the builders’ argument, building costs for exempt housing were much lower. Single or two-family dwellings were cheaper to construct; all supports could be of wood. Tenements, by law, had to employ masonry columns and girders of iron or steel.

And the builders argued that the return on one rental apartment was insufficient to maintain a family, a mortgage, and meet annual charges. Could it be that Jacob hoped to be in a position to take advantage of this amendment the minute it was approved? With little trouble his duplexes could be transformed to two single apartments. By 1911 the Sheridan Bill, and others like it before the legislature, had continued to meet with opposition. The staunchest opponent was the Tenement House Commission itself. The atrocious conditions existing before 1901, the year the Commission was established to supervise construction for multi-family use, had not been forgotten. The tenor of a contemporary report on the issue, was pro-Commission, describing the speculative builders as a self-seeking minority and encouraging the Commission to enforce protection. The hoped-for amendment was well on its way to becoming a dead issue only five years after it had seemed a mere legislative formality.

Hauser’s three-story bowed facades, used from the second campaign on, perhaps a direct response to the promise held within the Sheridan Bill, became the module to be repeated the length of the block. But what about the second question; why had Hauser shifted his earlier emphasis from variety toward greater homogeneity? In successive building campaigns Hauser reduced the prominence of his earliest architectural features to a more subtle, syncopated rhythm of component elements. Indeed these undulating brick rows are reminiscent of the Soanian ashlar granite double- bowed facade of the David Sears house (1816) on Boston’s Beacon Street, designed by Alexander Parris.

The reason Hauser eschewed variety in favor of homogeneity is most likely the same reason he shifted from a two- to a three-story dwelling. Jacob, aware of the hard economic facts of speculative building, requested him to do so. A repeated elevation is much cheaper than any kind of variation. A curved bow uses less brick than an angled bay. But Jacob did not forgo all amenities; the bows admitted more light and air than a simple flat facade.

Summary

This block of Morris Avenue represents a rare case of an intact, early 20th-century urban development where design responsibilities were limited to but one architect. The block is significant architecturally, as well, for it includes not only typical contemporary building types — tenement buildings and two variations of the two-family dwelling, but illustrates here in built form the architect’s step by step solution to a unconventional program. The resultant homogeneity in itself is exceptional for its time and place. There is no conspicuous evidence here of the sporadic land acquisition and the five consequent building campaigns, all within five years. The building and design histories here on Morris Avenue reflect the hyperactivity that followed the introduction of rapid transit to and from Manhattan as developers sought to provide housing in accommodations more spacious than the congested Manhattan tenements.

Description

Tremont Avenue does not intersect Morris at a right angle but obliquely, descending from the ridge along which now runs the Grand Concourse (toward Jerome) roughly southeast to northwest (plate 10). Consequently, Hauser and Jacob were presented with an east side of the street a few feet longer than the west side. That is why there are seventeen dwellings on the east side and sixteen on the west. Both the northeast and southwest comers of the intersection of Tremont and Morris Avenues contain tenement buildings, their bulk occupying the legal percentage of their vaguely quadrilateral lots. Then follow two rows of houses, facing each other across the street. The lots here are twenty feet wide and 100 feet deep. The houses are the same width but only fifty-five feet in depth. That is until the last four lots on either side of the street are reached. Here the lots are but eighty feet deep to compensate for the two lots inserted behind them (Tax Map Block 2829, Lot 12, and Tax Map Block 2807, lot 96) which front East 179th Street. Each of the houses on East 179th Street, No. 60 and No. 108, is twenty feet wide and eighty feet deep. In total then, there are two tenements and thirty-five dwellings.

– From the 1986 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Posted by Emilio Guerra on 2010-08-01 01:25:29

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