amazing Small House Plan Dresden, Zwinger, 07

Dresden, Zwinger, 07

The Zwinger (Der Dresdner Zwinger) is a palace in Dresden, eastern Germany, built in Baroque style.

The location was formerly part of the Dresden fortress of which the outer wall is conserved. The name derives from the German word Zwinger (outer ward of a concentric castle); it was for the cannons that were placed between the outer wall and the major wall. The Zwinger was not enclosed until the neoclassical building by Gottfried Semper called the Semper wing was built to host the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister art gallery.
The name Zwinger goes back to the common medieval German term for that part of a fortification between the outer and inner defensive walls, or "outer ward". Archaeological evidence indicates that the construction of the first city wall took place in the last quarter of the 12th century. A documentary entry as civitas in 1216 points to the existence of an enclosed Dresden Fortification at that time. In 1427, during the Hussite Wars, work began on strengthening the city’s defences and they were enhaned by a second – outer – wall. These improvements began near the Wildruffer Tor gate. Step by step the old moat had to be filled in and moved. The area between the two walls was generally referred to as the Zwinger and, in the vicinity of the castle, was utilised by the royal court at Dresden for garden purposes. The location of the so-called Zwingergarten from that period is only imprecisely known to be between the fortifications on the western side of the city.[1][2] Its extent varied in places as a result of subsequent improvements to the fortifications and is depicted differently on the various maps.

This royal Zwingergarten, a garden used to supply the court, still fulfilled one of its functions, as indicated by the name, as a narrow defensive area between the outer and inner defensive walls. This was no longer the case when work on the present-day Zwinger palace began in the early 18th century, nevertheless the name was transferred to the new building. Admittedly the southwestern parts of the building of the baroque Dresden Zwinger including the Kronentor gate stand on parts of the outer curtain wall that are still visible today; but there is no longer any trace of the inner wall
Augustus the Strong, elector of Saxony, returned from a grand tour through France and Italy in 1687–89, just at the moment that Louis XIV moved his court to Versailles. On his return to Dresden, having arranged his election as King of Poland (1697), he wanted something similarly spectacular for himself. The fortifications were no longer needed and provided readily available space for his plans. The original plans, as developed by his court architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann before 1711, covered the space of the present complex of palace and garden, and also included as gardens the space down to the Elbe River, upon which the Semper opera house and its square were built in the nineteenth century.

The Zwinger was designed by Pöppelmann and constructed in stages from 1710 to 1728. Sculpture was provided by Balthasar Permoser. The Zwinger was formally inaugurated in 1719, on the occasion of the electoral prince Frederick August’s marriage to the daughter of the Habsburg emperor, the Archduchess Maria Josepha. At the time, the outer shells of the buildings had already been erected and, with their pavilions and arcaded galleries, formed a striking backdrop to the event. It was not until the completion of their interiors in 1728, however, that they could serve their intended functions as exhibition galleries and library halls.

The death of Augustus in 1733 put a halt to the construction because the funds were needed elsewhere. The palace area was left open towards the Semperoper square and the river. Later the plans were changed to a smaller scale, and in 1847–1855 the area was closed by the construction of the gallery wing now separating the Zwinger from the opera place; the architect was Gottfried Semper, who designed the opera house.
The building was mostly destroyed by the carpet bombing raids of 13–15 February 1945. The art collection had been evacuated before, though. After the war, in a referendum, the people of Dresden voted to restore the building and generally preferred to rebuild the glories of the city, instead of having the ruins razed to make way for the architecture of socialist realism then prevalent in the German Democratic Republic.

More info and many other languages available at:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwinger

Posted by Andy von der Wurm on 2011-10-07 14:03:39

Tagged: , Zwinger , Der Zwinger , Dresden , sachsen , saxony , germany , deutschland , allemagne , alemania , europa , europe , sightseeing , travelling , travel , reisen , urlaub , vacation , trip , historical , building , castle , schloß , schloss , historisch , festung , Andreas Fucke , Hobby-Photograph

Great Small House Ideas 29238

29238

The Grade I Listed Wells Cathedral (Officially named Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew) viewed from the gardens of the Bishops Palace, in Wells, Somerset.

The earliest remains of a building on the site are of a late Roman mausoleum, identified during excavations in 1980. An abbey church was built in Wells in 705 by Aldhelm, first bishop of the newly established Diocese of Sherborne during the reign of King Ine of Wessex. It was dedicated to Saint Andrew and stood at the present site of the cathedral’s cloisters, where some excavated remains can be seen. The baptismal font in the cathedral’s south transept is from this church and is the oldest part of the present building. In 766 Cynewulf, King of Wessex, signed a charter endowing the church with eleven hides of land. In 909 the seat of the diocese was moved from Sherborne to Wells.

The first Bishop of Wells was Athelm (909), who crowned King Æthelstan. Athelm and his nephew Dunstan both became Archbishops of Canterbury. During this period a choir of boys was established to sing the liturgy. Wells Cathedral School, which was established to educate these choir boys, dates its foundation to this point. Following the Norman Conquest, Bishop John de Villula moved the seat of the bishop from Wells to Bath in 1090. The church at Wells, no longer a cathedral, had a college of secular clergy.

The cathedral is thought to have been conceived and commenced in about 1175 by Bishop Reginald Fitz Jocelin, who died in 1191. Although it is clear from its size that, from the outset, the church was planned to be the cathedral of the diocese, the seat of the bishop moved between Wells and the abbeys of Glastonbury and Bath, before settling at Wells. In 1197 Bishop Reginald’s successor, Bishop Savaric FitzGeldewin, with the approval of Pope Celestine III, officially moved his seat to Glastonbury Abbey. The title of Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury was used until the Glastonbury claim was abandoned in 1219.

Bishop Savaric’s successor, Jocelin of Wells, again moved the bishop’s seat to Bath Abbey, with the title Bishop of Bath. Jocelin was a brother of Bishop Hugh II of Lincoln and was present at the signing of the Magna Carta. Bishop Jocelin continued the building campaign begun by Bishop Reginald and was responsible for the Bishop’s Palace, the choristers’ school, a grammar school, a hospital for travellers and a chapel. In 1245 the ongoing dispute over the title of the bishop was resolved by a ruling of Pope Innocent IV who established the title as the "Bishop of Bath and Wells", as it has remained until this day, with Wells as the principal seat of the bishop.

The building programme, begun by Bishop Reginald Fitz Jocelin in the 12th century, continued under Jocelin of Wells, who was a canon from 1200, then bishop from 1206. It was designed in the new style with pointed arches, later known as Gothic, and which was introduced at about the same time at Canterbury Cathedral. Work was halted between 1209 and 1213 when King John was excommunicated and Bishop Jocelin was in exile, but the main parts of the church were complete by the time of the dedication by Bishop Jocelin in 1239.

By the time the cathedral, including the chapter house, was finished in 1306, it was already too small for the developing liturgy, and unable to accommodate increasingly grand processions of clergy. Bishop John Droxford initiated another phase of building under master mason Thomas of Whitney, during which the central tower was heightened and an eight-sided Lady chapel, completed by 1326, was added at the east end. Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury followed, continuing the eastward extension of the choir and retrochoir beyond. He oversaw the building of Vicars’ Close and the Vicars’ Hall, to give the men who were employed to sing in the choir a secure place to live and dine, away from the town and its temptations. He had an uneasy relationship with the citizens of Wells, partly because of his imposition of taxes, and he surrounded his palace with crenellated walls, a moat and a drawbridge.

Posted by benbobjr on 2017-10-07 07:54:43

Tagged: , Somerset , England , English , UK , GB , Great Britain , Britain , British , United Kingdom , Wells , Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew , Wells Cathedral , Church , Chapel , Worship , Religion , Cathedral , Grade I Listed , Grade , I , Listed , Building Listed , Building Christ Christian Christianity Gothic Church , England Roman , Catholic St , Andrew , Apostle cathedra diocese Aldhelm Diocese , Sherborne King , Ine , Wessex Cynewulf, King of Wessex , Athelm , King Æthelstan , Bishop Reginald Fitz Jocelin , Pope Celestine III , Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury

Great Small House Plan South Korea – Gyeongju – Bulguksa – 13

South Korea - Gyeongju - Bulguksa - 13

Bulguksa is located on the slopes of mount Toham (Jinheon-dong, Gyeongju city, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea). It is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism and encompasses seven National treasures of South Korea, including Dabotap and Seokgatap stone pagodas, Cheongun-gyo (Blue Cloud Bridge), and two gilt-bronze statues of Buddha. The temple is classified as Historic and Scenic Site No. 1 by the South Korean government. In 1995, Bulguksa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List together with the Seokguram Grotto, which lies four kilometers to the east.

The temple is considered as a masterpiece of the golden age of Buddhist art in the Silla kingdom.[citation needed] It is currently the head temple of the 11th district of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.

Among the earliest woodblock prints in world, a version of the Dharani sutra dated between 704 and 751 was found there in 1966. Its Buddhist text was printed on a 8 cm × 630 cm mulberry paper scroll.

HISTORY
The temple’s records state that a small temple was built on this site under King Beopheung in 528. The Samguk Yusa records that the current temple was constructed under King Gyeongdeok in 751, begun by Prime Minister Kim Daeseong to pacify the spirits of his parents. The building was completed in 774 by the Silla royal court, after Gim’s death, and given its current name Bulguksa (Temple of the Buddha Land).

The temple was renovated during the Goryeo Dynasty and the early Joseon Dynasty. During the Imjin wars, the wooden buildings were burned to the ground. After 1604, reconstruction and expansion of Bulguksa started, followed by about 40 renovations until 1805. During the Colonial Korea of 1910-1945, the Japanese conducted a restoration.

After World War II and the Korean War, a partial restoration was conducted in 1966. Upon an extensive archeological investigation, major restoration was conducted between 1969 and 1973 by the order of President Park Chung Hee, bringing Bulguksa to its current form. The famous stone structures are preserved from the original Silla construction.

STRUCTURE
The temple is located on the slopes of Tohamsan, in Jinheon-dong, Gyeongju.

The entrance to the temple, Sokgyemun, has a double-sectioned staircase and bridge (National Treasure No. 23) that leads to the inside of the temple compound. The stairway is 33 steps high, corresponding to the 33 steps to enlightenment. The lower portion, Cheongungyo (Blue Cloud Bridge) is 6.3 meters long and has 17 steps. The upper portion, Baegungyo (White Cloud Bridge) is 5.4 meters and has 16 steps. The stairway leads to Jahamun (Mauve Mist Gate).

There are two pagodas on the temple site, which is unusual. The three-story Seokgatap (Sakyamuni Pagoda) which stands at 8.2 meters is a traditional Korean-style stone pagoda with simple lines and minimal detailing. Seokgatap is over 13 centuries old. Dabotap (Many Treasure Pagoda) is 10.4 meters tall and dedicated to the Many Treasures Buddha mentioned in the Lotus Sutra. In contrast to Seokgatap, Dabotap is known for its highly ornate structure. Its image is reproduced on the South Korean 10 won coin. Dabotap and Seokgatap are Korean National Treasures nos. 20 and 21, respectively.

The terrestrial and the two celestial abodes are manifested in Bulguksa: the terrestrial with a Shakyamuni Buddha Lotus Sutra, the celestial with Amitabha Buddha Avatamska Sutra. The large temple site is centred on two courts. One of the courts is centred on Daeungjeon, the hall which houses the Shakyamuni Buddha. The other is centred on Geungnakjeon, the hall of paradise where the Seven Treasure Bridge Chilbogyo is housed.

Daeungjeon (대웅전,大雄展), the Hall of Great Enlightenment, is the main hall. Dabotap and Seokgatap stand before this hall. The hall enshrines the Sakyamuni Buddha and was first built in 681. Behind the main hall stands Museoljeon (무설전,無說展), the Hall of No Words. This hall gets its name from the belief that Buddha’s teachings could not be taught by mere words alone. It is one of the oldest buildings in the complex and was probably first built in 670. The Gwaneumjeon (Avalokitesvara’s Shrine, 관음전,觀音展) houses an image of the Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Perfect Compassion, and stands at the highest point of the complex. The Birojeon (Vairocana Buddha Hall, 비로전,毘盧展), which sits below the Gwaneumjeon, houses national treasure No.26 while the Geuknakjeon (Hall of Supreme Bliss, 극락전), standing near the main compound, houses the gilt-bronze buddha that is the national treasure No.27.

OFFICIAL TREASURES AT BULGUKSA
NATIONAL TREASURE NO.20 & 21
The two famous stone pagodas, Dabotap and Seokgatap reside in the main courtyard of the Bulguksa Temple complex. They are, respectively, the twentieth and twenty-first national treasures of Korea and were designated on December 20, 1962.

NATIONAL TREASURE NO.22
The Yeonhwagyo (Lotus Flower Bridge, 연화교,蓮華橋) and Chilbogyo (Seven Treasures Bridge, 칠보교,七寶橋) are a pair of bridges at Bulguksa.[8] This bridge was designated as the 22nd national treasure on December 20, 1962. The bridge lead to Anyangmun (Peace Enhancing Gate, 안양문,安養門) leading to Geuknakjeon (the Hall of the Pure Land). This pair were built at the same time as their brother bridges, National Treasure No.23.

These pair of bridges share the 45 degree incline, arch underneath, and the combination bridge/staircase design of their brother bridges. However, one noticeable difference is that this bridge is smaller. The lower Lotus Flower Bridge has 10 steps while the upper Seven Treasures Bridge contains 8 steps. This bridge is on the west in relation to the Blue Cloud and White Cloud Bridges. The Lotus Flower Bridge is known for its delicate carvings of Lotus Flowers on each step but these have faded with the weight of many pilgrims. Today, visitors are restricted from walking on the bridge.

NATIONAL TREASURE NO.23
The Cheongungyo (Blue Cloud Bridge, 청운교,靑雲橋) and Baegungyo (White Cloud Bridge, 백운교,百雲橋) Bridges of Bulguksa Temple are two bridges that are a part of a stairway that leads to the temple. The bridges were probably built in 750 during the reign of King Gyeongdeok. Although built separately, they are designated together as one single national treasure. They were designated as the 23rd national treasure on December 20, 1962.

The Blue Cloud Bridge makes up the lower span of the stair while the White Cloud Bridge is the upper part. The bridges lead to the Jahamun (Golden Purple Gate, 자하문,紫霞門) which leads to Sakyamuni Hall. There are 33 steps on the stairway, which slopes at a 45 degree angle, and each step corresponds to one of the 33 heavens of Buddhism. The lower Blue Cloud Bridge has seventeen steps while the upper White Cloud Bridge has sixteen. The large arch underneath the stairwell testifies to the use of arches in Silla-style bridges and the remains of a pond that once flowed underneath the bridge.

NATIONAL TREASURE NO.26
National Treasure No.26 (Bulguksa geumdong birojana buljwasang), designated on December 20, 1962, is a seated gilt-bronze Vairocana Buddha statue at Bulguksa Temple.

The Buddha of Enlightenment is enshrined in the Birojeon. It is 1.77 meters in height and made from gilt-bronze. The head of the Buddha has an usnisa, a symbol of supreme wisdom. The head of the Buddha was made by fusing two shells to each other and the face is elongated and soft. The robes of the Buddha are highly detailed and the simulation of folded cloth rippling down from the shoulder to the lap is done with high skill. The hands of the Buddha are in a position, the right index finger covered by the left hand, which often is used to symbolize the Buddha of Enlightenment. The figure is estimated to be from the 9th century due to stylistic evidence, including the overly wide lap and the lack of tension in the depiction of the robes and face of the Buddha.

NATIONAL TREASURE NO.27
The seated gilt-bronze Amitabha Buddha statue of Bulguksa Temple is National Treasure No.27. (Bulguksa geumdong amita yeoraejwasang) and was designated on December 20, 1962.

The Amitabha Buddha statue is 1.66 meters in height and enshrined in Geuknakjeon. This gilt-bronze statue was probably cast in the late 8th or early part of the 9th century and it shares the style of National Treasure No.26. The head of the statue is made by fixing two shell-like pieces together. The face has a distinctively aquiline nose. The Buddha has broad shoulders and strong chest while the large lap gives the figure a sense of proportional harmony and stability. The style of the robe seems to be more stylized and haphazard. The position of the left hand raised at shoulder-level palm forward and the right hand is placed at the lap. The style of the Buddha seems to follow an abstract and stylized tradition rather than a representation of realism.

NATIONAL TREASURE NO.61
This sarira pagoda (사리탑), or stupa, looks like a stone lantern. It stands 2.1 meters tall and is located at the left side of the front garden of Birojeon. The artifact was at one point taken to Japan in 1906 but was returned in 1933. It is from the Goryeo Dynasty, but shows the influence of Silla Dynasty art.

A sarira is a container for the relics or remains of famous priests or royalty. It is said that this sarira contained the remains of eight priests or a queen. The three main features of the piece are the foundation stone, the main body, and the ornamental top. The foundation is an octagonal stone decorated with carvings. Atop this foundation is a circular stone incised with lotus motifs. The pillar supports of the main body are carved with a cloud motif while the main body is cylindrical and has four bas-reliefs of Buddha and bodhisattvas and are accompanied by flower motifs. The top of the pagoda has twelve sides which meet into a hexagonal shape.

WIKIPEDIA

Posted by asienman on 2013-11-08 18:49:48

Tagged: , South Korea , Gyeongju , Bulguksa , asienman-photography

awesome Small House Plan Potterne, Porch House

Potterne, Porch House

House, c1480 restored 1872-6 by E. Christian, timber-frame with stone slate roofs and ashlar stacks. Single storey central great hall flanked by 2-storey gabled cross wings with 2-storey gabled porch projecting from south cross wing and rear wing extending back from north cross wing. A remarkable unified design of a single build, close-studded framing on ashlar plinth, the cross wings flush with the main range but jettied at first floor, the jetties aligned with the mid-rail of the hall and a moulded sill-course continued under eaves cove of the hall. Finely carved bargeboards to wings and porch, one a C19 renewal, ball finials to wings and hips of main roof. Hall has projecting full-height timber bay to left with traceried leaded lights and inserted stained glass. Moulded transom, brattished cornice and 5-lights to front. Upper lights are restorations and possibly also tracery of lower lights. To right, close studding and deep eaves cove. Cross wings have brackets on moulded shafts under jetties, moulded bressumers and cambered tie-beams and collars. Left wing has ground floor restored oriel of 3 pairs of traceried leaded lights and first floor 1:2:1 light canted oriel with moulded transom and brattished cornice, supported on moulded bracket. Ashlar side-wall stack flanked by C19 timber oriels. Right cross wing has porch projecting to left and, to right, timber oriel dated G.R. 1874 to first floor and ground floor restored 4-light leaded window with traceried heads. Porch is jettied on 3 sides with first floor similar oriel dated G.R. 1874. Ground floor Tudor-arched restored entry and 3-light C19 traceried openings to sides. C19 Tudor- arched studded plank inner door with original small pointed wicket. Rear has flush gable to south cross-wing, close-studded rear wall to hall and 2-bay rear wing to north cross wing, jettied on south front with tension bracing, 2-window range with door to left and east end C19 ashlar stack… EH Listing

Posted by Clanger’s England on 2008-09-29 01:23:55

Tagged: , house , Potterne , Kennet , Wiltshire , LBS445975 , England , EBB , WBI , EBI , Grade I listed building , KML

amazing Small House Design A Large Queen Anne Villa – Essendon

A Large Queen Anne Villa - Essendon

This wonderful concoction of Art Nouveau fretwork terracotta finials and roof tiles, half timbered gabling and tall chimneys appear on a grand Edwardian villa in the Melbourne suburb of Essendon.

Built around the turn of the Twentieth Century, this large villa has been built in the Queen Anne style, which was mostly a residential style inspired by the Arts and Crafts movement in England, but also encompassed some of the more stylised elements of Art Nouveau, which gave it an more decorative look. The red brick from which the villa is built is in keeping with the Arts and Crafts movement. Yet the stylised fretwork of the wide return verandah, and the stained glass windows are Art Nouveau in design.

Queen Anne style was most popular around the time of Federation. With complex roofline structures and undulating facades, many Queen Anne houses fell out of fashion at the beginning of the modern era, and were demolished.

Essendon was etablished in the 1860s and became an area of affluence and therefore only had middle-class, upper middle-class and some very wealthy citizens. A large villa like this built in one of the finer pockets of the suburb suggests that it was built for an aspiring upper middle-class family of some means. This villa would have required a small retinue of servants to maintain.

Posted by raaen99 on 2011-08-28 13:18:00

Tagged: , terracotta , Edwardian , Edwardiana , Arts and Crafts , Reformist , Reformist style , Arts and Crafts Movement , Arts & Crafts , Arts & Crafts Movement , Queen Anne , Queen Anne style , Federation , fretwork , half timbered , gable , latticework , finials , wood , wood carving , chimneys , brick , red brick , Art Nouveau stained glass , verandah , return verandah , light , lamp , porthole window , Art Nouveau , Nouveau , tiles , tiling , terracotta roof tiles , windows , roof , roof tiles , capping , bay window , Twentieth Century , 20th Century , garden , trees , leaves , leaf , shrubs , shrubbery , lawn , fence , wall , brick wall , brick fence , gate , wrought iron , iron , iron gate , brown brick , feature bricks , topiary , stone , stucco , stuccoed brick , rough cast , house , home , domestic architecture , villa , residence , architecture , building , Melbourne architecture , Essendon , Melbourne , Victoria , Australia

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